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Table 4 Predictors of malaria infection diagnosed by PCR among pregnant women of Nchelenge district in Zambia

From: High burden of malaria infection in pregnant women in a rural district of Zambia: a cross-sectional study

Potential risk factor category Number in each category % Unadjusted OR P value Adjusted OR for multivariate analysis P value Adjusted OR for final model P value
Total 1074 100 1074   1068 <0.001 1072 <0.001
Recruitment site     <0.001   <0.001   <0.001
 Kashikishi 737 68.6 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Nchelenge 337 31.4 1.80 (1.37–2.35) 1.89 (1.43–2.50) 1.81 (1.38–2.37)
Age group     <0.001   0.145   
 ≤20 295 27.5 1.00 1.00   
 21–25 304 28.3 0.51 (0.37–0.72) 0.63 (0.41–0.98)   
 26–30 244 22.7 0.51 (0.36–0.73) 0.67 (0.41–1.20)   
 ≥30 231 21.5 0.45 (0.32–0.64) 0.57 (0.34 –0.95)   
Marital status     0.043   0.412   
 Single 201 18.7 1.00 1.00   
 Marrieda 873 81.3 0.72 (0.52–0.99) 1.18 (0.78–1.80)   
Gravidity     <0.001   <0.069   
 Primigravidae 259 24.1 1.00 1.00   
 Secundigravidae 165 15.4 0.74 (0.48–1.11) 0.80 (0.48–1.33)   
 Multigravidae 650 60.5 0.50 (0.37–0.68) 0.58 (0.35–0.95)   
Bed-net ownership     0.015   0.640   
 No 547 50.9 1.00 1.00   
 Yes 527 49.1 0.74 (0.58–0.94) 1.13 (0.72–1.73)   
Bed-net usage (1071)     0.006   0.213   
 No 659 61.5 1.00 1.00   
 Yes 412 38.5 0.75 (0.48–0.91) 0.74 (0.48–1.18)   
IRS in past 12 months (1025)b     0.257     
 No 800 78.1 1.00    
 Yes 225 21.9 1.19 (0.88–1.61)    
Wealth quintiles (1072)     0.072   0.027*   
 Lowest 216 20.1 1.00 1.00   
 Second 219 20.4 0.80 (0.54–1.17) 0.73 (0.50–1.09)   
 Middle 209 19.5 0.91 (0.61–1.34) 0.76 (0.51–1.15)   
 Fourth 214 20.0 1.08 (0.73–1.60) 0.90 (0.59–1.38)   
 Highest 214 20.0 0.64 (0.44–0.95) 0.52 (0.35–0.80)   
HIV infection     0.057   0.025   0.045
 Negative 936 87.1 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Positive 138 12.9 1.30 (0.91–1.88) 1.62 (1.09–2.39) 1.46 (1.00–2.13)
  1. Totals of individual variables less than 1074 (available results for malaria diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction) are indicated in the first column. These were due to missing values in individual variables
  2. IRS Indoor residual spraying, HIV human immunodeficiency virus
  3. aThe group included women who had been married before (divorced/separated or widowed)
  4. bTotal number was 1025 due to the exclusion of the ‘unknown’ response. Some women did not know if IRS had been applied to their houses due to occupying them in less than 12 months
  5. * When wealth quintile was put in the model with HIV and site of recruitment it was not significantly associated with malaria infection at P < 0.05 and was therefore excluded from the final model. There was no interaction between HIV infection and site of recruitment in the final model (P = 0.751)