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Table 3 Summary of the results from longitudinal studies with malaria patients and nutritional-related outcomes

From: Association between anthropometry-based nutritional status and malaria: a systematic review of observational studies

Identification Country Age group/follow-up time Plasmodium species Sample size Exposure Outcome Effect measure/statistic and CI Result Covariates tested or adjusted
Rowland et al. [40] Gambia 6 months to 3 years (Follow-up of 1 year) P. falciparum     Regression   None
     152 Incidence Increment on weight 1.072 (268) (p = <0.001) Risk  
     152 Incidence Increment on weight 7.0 (6.0) (NS) No association  
Williams et al. [30] Vanuatu <10 years P. falciparum/vivax    Z-score (<−2) (NCHS, 1977) IRR (Incidence rate ratio)   None
     911 Incidence (P. falciparum) W/H NI (NS) No association  
     911 Incidence (P. falciparum) W/A 1.3 (0.9–1.9) No association  
     911 Incidence (P. vivax) W/H 2.2 (1–4.9) Risk  
     911 Incidence (P. vivax) W/A 1.3 (0.9–2.0) No association  
Hautvast et al. [41] Zambia 6 months to 3 years and 4 months (Follow-up of 1 year and 9 months) P. falciparum (94 %)/Mixed malaria(19 %)   Parasite density (mean with SD) Z-score (mean with SD) r (Pearson’s)   Age, gender, socioeconomic status, maternal height, haemoglobin, albumin, zinc, retinol, thyrotropin, iron, ferritin, parasite density, C-reative protein, alfa-acid glycoprotein
     108 Cohort 1 Parasite density on period 1 (age range of 6–9 months) vs Z-score on period 2 (age range of 14–20 months) H/A −0.30 (p = 0.005) Risk  
     102 Cohort 2 Parasite density on period 2 (age range of 14–20 months) vs Z-score on period 3 (age range of 22–30 months) H/A −0.28 (p = 0.03) Risk  
Deen et al. [33] Gambia <5 years (Follow-up of 20 weeks) P. falciparum    Z-score (<−2) (NCHS, 1977) “t” Test   Age, gender, ethnicity
     392 Incidence H/A NI (NS) No association  
     392 Incidence W/H NI (NS) No association  
     392 Incidence W/A NI (NS) No association  
Friedman et al. [42] Kenia 12 to 35 years P. falciparum   Parasite density (mean with SD) Z-score (mean with SD) (CDC/NCHS, 2000) B (Pearson’s)   Age, parasite density, peripheral blood mononuclear cell production of TNF-alfa in response to mitogen or malarial antigens
     147 Whole cohort Parasite density in the previous transmission period vs Z-score and Kg/m2 BMI/Age −0.201 (p = 0.11) No association  
     83 Tanner stage <3 (prepubescent) Parasite density in the previous transmission period vs Z-score Kg/m2 BMI (mean with SD) <17 kg/m2 (≥20 years) −0.324 (p = 0.02) Risk  
     83 Tanner stage ≥3 (adult) Parasite density in the previous transmission period vs Kg/m2 BMI (mean with SD) <17 kg/m2 (≥20 years) 0.16 (= 0.51) No association  
Nyakeriga et al. [36] Kenia 28 to 60 months (Follow-up of 1 year and 5 months) P. falciparum    Z-score (<−2) (NCHS, 1977) RR Risk Age, ethnicity, season, haemoglobin genotype
     340 Incidence H/A 1.89 (1.01–3.53) Risk  
     340 Incidence W/A 1.33 (0.64–2.70) No association  
Sowumi et al. [43] Nigeria <13 years (Follow-up of 14 days) P. falciparum    Fall in weight OR   Age, gender, fever, duration of illness, parasitaemia, haematocrit, liver and spleen enlargement
     432 Parasite density(≥100,000/µl parasites) ≤5 % from admission to d14 1.21 (0.72–2.01) No association  
Danquah et al. [37] Ghana 3 months to 2 years (Follow-up of 1 year and 9 months) P. falciparum    Z-score (≤−2) (WHO, 2006) GEE (General estimating equation)   Season, food availability
     1200 Incidence H/A or L/A −0.18 (= 0.01) Risk  
     1200 Incidence W/H NI (NS) No association  
     1200 Incidence W/A NI (NS) No association  
Kang et al. [44] Ghana 3 months to 2 years (Follow-up of 1 year and 9 months) P. falciparum    Z-score (<−2) (WHO, 2006) RR   Gender, birth weight, birth season, ethnicity group, alpha-thalassaemia, village of birth, mother’s occupation, mother’s education, family’s financial status, mosquito protection, sickle cell trait
     884 Incidence H/A or L/A 0.32 (0.09–1) No association  
Olney et al. [45] Zanzibar <13 years (Follow-up of 6 months) P. falciparum    Z-score (mean with SD) (WHO, 2006) Regression   None
     247 Incidence 5–9 months H/A 0.008 (NS) No association  
     247 Incidence 10–14 months H/A −0.063 (NS) No association  
Muhangi et al. [46] Uganda Birth to 1 year (Follow-up of 1 year) P. falciparum    Z-score (<−2) (WHO, 2006) OR   Gender, number of living children in the family, early weaning, maternal age, maternal education, socio-economic status, low birth weight, HIV exposure
     1502 Incidence L/A 2.12 (1.38-3.27) Risk  
     1502 Incidence W/L NI (NS) No association  
     1502 Incidence W/A NI (NS) No association  
Padonou et al. [47] Benin Birth to 18 months (Follow-up of 18 months) P. falciparum    Z-score (WHO, 2006) Coefficient   Birth place, mother’s age, maternal short stature and low weight status, parity, number of pre-natal visits, marital status, mother’s education, bed net protection, household wealth score, birth weight and length, gender, gestational age, prematurity, intra-uterine growth retardation, maternal anemia, placental malaria infection, use of intermittent preventive treatment
     520 Incidence H/A −0.03(0.02) (p = 0.15) No association  
     520 Incidence W/H −0.01 (0.02) (p = 0.74) No association  
Alexandre et al. [39] Brazil 1 month to 14 years (Follow-up of 12 months) P. vivax (72.6 %)/P. falciparum (22.5 %)/Mixed malaria P.vivax + P. falciparum (4.9 %)    Cm/year (WHO, 2006; WHO, 2007) OR   Age, gender, maternal education, socioeconomic status
     39 Incidence ≤5 years Increment on height 1.1 (0.2–6.4) No association  
     108 Incidence 5–10 years Increment on height 4.0 (1.4–11.4) Risk  
     55 Incidence 10–14 years Increment on height 1.1 (0.2–4.8) No association  
     39 Incidence Z-score (<−2) ≤5 years H/A 6.9 (0.3–161.6) No association  
       Z-score (<−2) (WHO, 2006; WHO, 2007) 5–10 years    
     108 Incidence H/A 0.9 (0.3–3.1) No association  
     108 Incidence W/A 5.1 (0.5–45.9) No association  
     108 Incidence BMI/A 4.2 (0.4–39.1) No association  
       Z-score (<−2) (WHO, 2006; WHO, 2007) 10–14 years    
     55 Incidence H/A 0.4 (0.1–2.2) No association  
     55 Incidence BMI/A 1.0 (0.1–17.0) No association  
  1. BMI body mass index, H/A height/age, W/H weight/height, W/A weight/age, AC/A arm circumference/age, L/A length/age, SD standard-deviation, NS non-significant