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Table 3 Species specific sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of RDTs compared with HVUSqPCR parasite detection

From: The epidemiology of subclinical malaria infections in South-East Asia: findings from cross-sectional surveys in Thailand–Myanmar border areas, Cambodia, and Vietnam

  qPCR pos, RDT pos qPCR pos, RDT neg qPCR neg, RDT neg qPCR neg, RDT pos Total Sensitivity (95 % CI) Specificity (95 % CI) Positive predictive value (95 % CI) Negative predictive value (95 % CI)
Pf
 All sites 96 120 4462 55 4733 44 % (38–51 %) 99 % (98–99 %) 64 % (55–71 %) 97 % (97–98 %)
 Cam 1 35 1411 0 1447 3 % (0–15 %) 100 % (99–100 %) 100 % (3–100 %) 98 % (97–98 %)
 TMBA 71 34 1241 37 1383 68 % (58–76 %) 97 % (96–98 %) 66 % (56–75 %) 97 % (96–98 %)
 Viet 24 51 1810 18 1903 32 % (22–44 %) 99 % (98–100 %) 57 % (41–72 %) 97 % (96–98 %)
Non Pf
 All sites 54 332 4332 15 4733 14 % (11–18 %) 100 % (99–100 %) 78 % (67–87 %) 93 % (92–94 %)
 Cam 0 52 1395 0 1447 0 % (0–1 %) 100 % (93–100 %) NA 96 % (95–97 %)
 TMBA 47 180 1153 3 1383 21 % (16–27 %) 100 % (99–100 %) 94 % (84–99 %) 87 % (85–88 %)
 Viet 7 100 1784 12 1903 7 % (3–13 %) 100 % (99–100 %) 37 % (16–62 %) 95 % (94–96 %)
P. spp.
 All sites 20 379 3740 46 4185 5 % (3–8 %) 99 % (98–99 %) 30 % (20–43 %) 91 % (90–92 %)
 Cam 0 145 1218 0 1363 0 % (0–0.3 %) 100 % (97–100 %) NA 89 % (88–91 %)
 TMBA 16 158 873 24 1071 9 % (5–15 %) 97 % (96–98 %) 40 % (25–57 %) 85 % (82–87 %)
 Viet 4 76 1649 22 1751 5 % (1–12 %) 99 % (98–99 %) 15 % (4–35 %) 96 % (95–97 %)
  1. RDT, rapid diagnostic test, HVUSqPCR, high volume ultra-sensitive real time polymerase chain reaction; Pf’, Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium falciparum mixed infection; non-Pf, RDTs distinguish between P. falciparum, and non-P. falciparum, and uninfected blood. In this study only P. vivax was identified by molecular methods so non-P. falciparum in an RDT equates with P. vivax; P. spp., Plasmodium species not identified by HVUSqPCR compared against any Plasmodium infection detected by RDT; Cam, Cambodia; TMBA, Thailand–Myanmar border areas; qPCR pos, positive (species specific); qPCR neg, negative; NA, not applicable