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Table 3 Accuracy indices of the HRP-2 band and Field microscopy compared with expert microscopy and PCR to detect P. falciparum

From: Performance of four HRP-2/pLDH combination rapid diagnostic tests and field microscopy as screening tests for malaria in pregnancy in Indonesia: a cross-sectional study

  Carestart™ First Response® Parascreen® SD Bioline® Field microscopy Expert microscopy
Expert microscopy as reference test
TP, FP 7, 8 9, 8 8, 13 9, 11 13, 13 N/A
FN, TN 17, 902 15, 902 16, 897 15, 899 11, 897
Sensitivity (95 % CI) 29.2 (13.4–51.2) 37.5 (19.6–59.2) 33.3 (16.4–55.3) 37.5 (19.6–59.2) 54.2 (33.2–73.8)
Specificity (95 % CI) 99.1 (98.2–99.6) 99.1 (98.2–99.6) 98.6 (97.5–99.2) 98.8 (97.8–99.4) 98.6 (97.5–99.2)
PPV (95 % CI) 46.7 (22.3–72.6) 52.9 (28.5–76.1) 38.1 (19.0–61.3) 45.0 (23.8–67.7) 50.0 (30.4–69.6)
NPV (95 % CI) 98.2 (97.0–98.9) 98.4 (97.3–99.0) 98.2 (97.1–99.0) 98.4 (97.2–99.0) 98.8 (97.8–99.4)
LR positive (95 % CI) 33.2 (13.1–84.1) 42.7 (18.0–101.0) 23.3 (10.7–51.0) 31.0 (14.2–67.8) 37.9 (19.7–72.9)
LR negative (95 % CI) 0.71 (0.55–0.92) 0.63 (0.46–0.86) 0.68 (0.51–0.90) 0.63 (0.46–0.86) 0.46 (0.30–0.72)
DOR (95 % CI) 46.4 (13.3–163.3) 67.7 (20.4–228.7) 34.5 (11.2–105.7) 49.0 (15.9–152.9) 81.5 (30.0–243.0)
PCR as the reference test
TP, FP 4, 11 7, 10 7, 14 6, 14 12, 14 12, 12
FN, TN 35, 884 32, 885 32, 881 33, 881 27, 881 27, 883
Sensitivity (95 % CI) 10.3 (3.3–25.2) 17.9 (8.1–34.1) 17.9 (8.1–34.1) 15.4 (6.4–31.2) 30.8 (17.5–47.7) 30.8 (17.5–47.7)
Specificity (95 % CI) 98.8 (97.7–99.4) 98.9 (97.9–99.4) 98.4 (97.3–99.1) 98.4 (97.3–99.1) 98.4 (97.3–99.1) 98.7 (97.6–99.2)
PPV (95 % CI) 26.7 (8.9–55.2) 41.2 (19.4–66.5) 33.3 (15.5–56.9) 30.0 (12.8–54.3) 46.2 (27.1–66.3) 50.0 (29.6–70.4)
NPV (95 % CI) 96.2 (94.7–97.3) 96.5 (95.1–97.6) 96.5 (95.0–97.6) 96.4 (94.9–97.5) 97.0 (95.6–98.0) 97.0 (95.7–98.0)
LR positive (95 % CI) 8.3 (2.8–25.0) 16.1 (6.5–40.0) 11.5 (4.9–26.8) 9.8 (4.0–24.2) 19.7 (9.8–39.7) 22.9 (11.0–47.8)
LR negative (95 % CI) 0.9 (0.82–1.01) 0.83 (0.72–0.96) 0.83 (0.72–96.5) 0.86 (0.75–0.98) 0.70 (0.57–0.87) 0.70 (0.57–0.87)
DOR (95 % CI) 9.2 (2.3–33.4) 19.4 (6.2–59.9) 13.8 (4.7–39.8) 11.4 (3.7–34.6) 30.0 (10.9–71.9) 32.7 (12.4–86.9)
  1. TP true positive, FP false positive, FN false negative, TN true negative, CI confidence interval, PPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value, LR Likelihood ratio, DOR diagnostic odds ratio