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Table 1 Description of drug information sources used to determine anti-malarial and malaria exposure status

From: Risks of miscarriage and inadvertent exposure to artemisinin derivatives in the first trimester of pregnancy: a prospective cohort study in western Kenya

Approach Format Drug information available
EMEP self-report Retrospective self-report of illness and medication used since the beginning of the pregnancy collected at every ANC visit and at pregnancy outcome follow-up visit. A general open question about any drug use as well as a directed question for specific anti-malarials were included as using medication/indication-specific questions have been shown to improve accuracy. Photographs of all anti-malarial drugs found in the study area were used to facilitate recognition of drug names. A calendar marking public holidays and school closures was also used to enhance recall of dates Drug name
Drug start date
Number of tablets per day
Indication and indication diagnosis
Drug source
Lwak-OPD records Prospective documentation by health facility clinic staff of diagnosis and treatment prescribed at outpatient department (OPD) whenever a PBIDS participant sought care at Lwak Hospital for an infectious syndrome Date of visit
Prescribed treatment
PBIDS weekly and twice-monthly home visits Self-report of symptoms, health-seeking behaviour and medication. This information was collected continuously on a weekly (from 5 January, 2010 to 26 May, 2011) and then twice-monthly basis (27 May, 2011 onwards). The same visual aids as described above were used for recall of drug intake Date of visit
Symptoms in previous week/2 weeks
Treatment taken for the symptoms including drug name
If and where care was sought
  1. ANC antenatal care, EMEP evaluation of medications used in early pregnancy study, Lwak OPD Lwak hospital out-patient department, PBIDS population-based infectious disease surveillance