Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of 1134 pregnancies by ACT exposure status [n (%) otherwise stated]

From: Risks of miscarriage and inadvertent exposure to artemisinin derivatives in the first trimester of pregnancy: a prospective cohort study in western Kenya

  Overall (N = 1134) No ACT exposure in the first trimester (N = 835) Unconfirmed ACT exposure in the first trimester (N = 222) Confirmed ACT exposure in the first trimester (N = 77) P values*
Age in years [mean (SD; range)] 26.1 (6.8; 15–47) 26.1 (6.7; 15–45) 26.7 (7.2; 15–47) 25.2 (6.5; 16–41) 0.225
Gravidity Missing n = 16 Missing n = 14 Missing n = 1 Missing n = 1 0.065
Primigravidae 219 (19.6) 151 (18.4) 47 (21.3) 21 (27.6)  
1–3 pregnancies 525 (47.0) 405 (49.3) 90 (40.7) 30 (39.5)  
4+ pregnancies 374 (33.5) 265 (32.3) 84 (38.0) 25 (32.9)  
Previous pregnancy loss 160 (14.3), Missing n = 17 118 (14.4), Missing n = 15 30 (13.6), Missing n = 1 12 (15.8), Missing n = 1 0.888
Gestational age at detection in weeks [mean (SD; range)]a 13.3 (6.9; 0–27.9) 13.3 (7.0; 0–27.9) 13.0 (6.7; 0.3–27) 13.6 (7.1; 2.4–27.4) 0.770
Occupation Missing n = 31 Missing n = 28 Missing n = 1 Missing n = 2 0.191
Not working 379 (34.4) 281 (34.8) 68 (30.8) 30 (40.0)  
Farming 369 (33.5) 268 (33.2) 80 (36.2) 21 (28.0)  
Small business/Skilled Labour 335 (30.4) 246 (30.5) 65 (29.4) 24 (32.0)  
Other 20 (1.8) 12 (1.5) 8 (3.6) 0  
Antenatal care summary
 Number of ANC visit Missing n = 39 Missing n = 31 Missing n = 5 Missing n = 3 0.125
 None 89 (8.1) 64 (8.0) 21 (9.7) 4 (5.4)  
 1 90 (8.2) 61 (7.6) 24 (11.1) 5 (6.8)  
 2 155 (14.2) 121 (15.1) 25 (11.5) 9 (12.2)  
 3 244 (22.3) 193 (24.0) 38 (17.5) 13 (17.6)  
 4+ 517 (47.2) 365 (45.4) 109 (50.2) 43 (58.1)  
Gestational age at first ANC visit in weeks [mean (SD)]* 20.8 (7.8) range: 1.7–41.0 21.24 (7.8) range: 2.7–41.0 19.7 (7.6) range: 1.7–41.0 19.4 (7.7) range: 3.4-37.0 0.020
HIV positiveb Missing n = 101 Missing n = 79 Missing n = 18 Missing n = 4 0.354
Negative 771 (74.4) 562 (74.3) 149 (73.0) 60 (82.2)  
Positive 262 (25.4) 194 (25.7) 55 (27.0) 13 (17.8)  
  1. ACT artemisinin combination therapy, SD standard deviation
  2. * P values refer to Pearson Chi square test for categorical variables and ANOVA test for continuous variables
  3. aGestational age lowest estimate include 0 which reflects inaccuracy in the gestational age measurements
  4. bHIV status information was not available for 12 % (129) of pregnancies that did not attend antenatal care or have the antenatal card for review. HIV status information was complemented by HDSS and data which offered home-based HIV testing and counselling to PBIDS participants. Test results were linked to the study participants using unique ID and missing data were updated if the test was performed before the pregnancy detection for HIV positive test results and for HIV negative results if the test was performed maximum 3 months before or after pregnancy detection. An additional 30 HIV status were ascertained while 8 % (99) still had no HIV status data