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Table 5 Associations of knowledge and behavioural responses with socioeconomic status among 530 community survey participants in eastern Afghanistan

From: Towards a strategy for malaria in pregnancy in Afghanistan: analysis of clinical realities and women’s perceptions of malaria and anaemia

Response variables Poorera Wealthiera OR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI)
(N = 265) (N = 265)
Primary source of healthcare
 NGO/government health facility 217 (81.9) 184 (69.4) Ref. Ref.
 Private health facility 43 (16.2) 67 (25.3) 1.84 (1.19–2.82)* 1.30 (0.77–2.21)
 Traditional/self-treat 5 (1.9) 14 (5.3)
Attended antenatal services at least once 228 (86.0) 228 (86.0) 1.00 (0.61–1.63) 1.38 (0.75–2.54)
Uses iron/folate supplements 54 (20.45) 91 (34.3) 2.34 (1.55–3.53)* 1.90 (1.17–3.09)*
Greatest health concern
 Other 3 (1.1) 10 (3.8)
 Diarrhoea 18 (6.8) 14 (5.3) Ref. Ref.
 ARI 12 (4.5) 21 (7.9) 0.53 (0.12–2.29) 0.53 (0.09–3.03)
 Malaria 232 (87.6) 220 (83.0) 0.28 (0.77–1.05) 0.43 (0.91–2.00)
How common is malaria
 No malaria/infrequent 22 (8.3) 29 (10.9) Ref. Ref.
 Common 243 (91.7) 236 (89.1) 0.74 (0.41–1.32) 0.73 (0.36–1.48)
Best malaria prevention in pregnancy
 Nothing works 29 (10.9) 24 (9.1) Ref. Ref.
 ITNs 212 (80.0) 219 (82.6) 1.25 (0.70–2.21) 1.26 (0.64–2.46)
 Rapid diagnosis/treatment 1 (0.4) 1 (0.4)
Burning/smoke 8 (3.0) 9 (3.4)
Clean house/area 15 (5.7) 12 (4.5) 0.97 (0.38–2.46) 0.53 (0.17–1.64)
Preferred malaria diagnosis
 Self/informal 31 (11.7) 48 (18.1) Ref. Ref.
 Facility (clinical) 50 (18.9) 29 (10.9) 0.37 (0.20–0.71)* 0.43 (0.19–0.96)*
 Facility (blood test) 184 (69.4) 188 (70.9) 0.66 (0.40–1.08) 0.91 (0.48–1.72)
Preferred malaria treatment
 NGO/government health facility 214 (80.8) 198 (74.2) Ref. Ref.
 Private health facility/Other 51 (19.2) 67 (25.3) 1.42 (0.94–2.14) 0.86 (0.51–1.44)
Would use malaria-preventive drugs in pregnancy
 Never 232 (87.6) 204 (77.0) Ref. Ref.
 Yes/maybe 33 (12.5) 61 (23.0) 2.10 (1.32–3.34)* 1.69 (0.98–2.91)
Why use ITNs
 Avoid mosquitoes 169 (63.8) 167 (63.0) Ref. Ref.
 Prevent insect bites 49 (18.5) 43 (16.2) 0.89 (0.56–1.41) 1.15 (0.65–2.02)
 Prevent malaria 40 (15.1) 51 (19.3) 1.29 (0.81–2.06) 1.92 (1.07–3.43)*
Other/don’t know 7 (2.6) 4 (1.5)
ITN-owners only n = 40 (%) n = 159 (%)   
Which family members use ITNs
 Nobody/unknown 11 (27.5) 41 (25.8) Ref. Ref.
 All 9 (22.5) 61 (38.4) 1.82 (0.69–4.78) 1.23 (0.37–4.04)
 Children 20 (50.0) 43 (27.0) 0.58 (0.24–1.35) 0.48 (0.16–1.40)
 Women 0 (0) 11 (6.9)
 Men/elderly 0 (0) 3 (1.9)
Participant used ITN last night 7 (17.5) 32 (20.1) 1.19 (0.48–2.93) 3.09 (1.01–9.51)*
Reasons for not using ITN last night n = 33 (%) n = 127 (%)   
No mosquito nuisance 11 (33.3) 35 (27.6) Ref. Ref.
ITN used by others 12 (36.4) 26 (20.5) 0.68 (0.26–1.78) 2.87 (0.42–19.8)
No reason provided 10 (30.3) 66 (52.0) 2.07 (0.80–5.36) 4.65 (1.09–19.8)*
  1. * p < 0.05; AOR adjusted for survey, age, parity, trimester, district
  2. aPoorer merges SEQ 1 and 2, Wealthier merges SEQ 3 and 4