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Table 4 Multivariate risk factors analysis for anaemia, under-nutrition parameters and malaria parasitaemia

From: Malaria, anaemia and under-nutrition: three frequently co-existing conditions among preschool children in rural Rwanda

Variable Anaemia OR (95 % CI), P-value Stunting OR (95 % CI), P-value Wasting OR (95 % CI), P-value Underweight OR (95 % CI), P-value Malaria OR (95 % CI), P-value
Malaria parasitaemia (Positive) 3.857 (2.208–6.740), <0.0001     
Presence of anaemia (yes)     1.857 (1.093–3.155), 0.022 3.898 (2.297–6.615), <0.0001
Presence of stunting (yes) 1.428 (0.960–2.126), 0.079   0.046 (0.024–0.088), <0.0001 20.412 (12.304–33.862), <0.0001  
Presence of wasting (yes)   0.055 (0.030–0.098), <0.0001   59.139 (32.506–107.594), <0.0001  
Presence of under weight (yes) 1.979 (1.240–3.158), 0.004 20.256 (12.464–32.921), <0.0001 60.71 (31.994–115.197), <0.0001   
Sex      
 Male     1.444 (1.061–1.966), 0.019  
Fever (Yes)   1.331 (1.070–1.656), 0.010    
Is HH in an economic group? (Yes)   0.758 (0.618–0.931), 0.008    
Was IRS done in HH (Yes) 0.471(0.222–0.997), 0.049   0.589 (0.397–0.873), 0.008   
Does the HH owns ≥1 bednet (Yes)   0.551 (0.338–0.899), 0.017    
Study participant age group      
 6–11    
 12–23 0.522 (0.297–0.916), 0.023    1.262 (0.697–2.283), 0.443 1.989 (0.766–5.169), 0.158
 24–35 0.405 (0.227–0.721), 0.002    1.849 (1.031–3.316), 0.039 3.157 (1.259–7.920), 0.014
 36–47 0.340 (0.181–0.639), 0.001    2.124 (1.159–3.894), 0.015 3.528 (3.1384–8.992), 0.008
 48–60 0.257 (0.135–0.490), <0.0001    2.123 (1.169–3.855), 0.013 3.699 (1.479–9.251), 0.005
HH SES level      
 Low      
 Middle 0.588 (0.373–0.928), 0.022     0.793 (0.415–1.516), 0.483
 High 0.568 (0.352–0.916), 0.020     0.372 (0.152–0.906), 0.029
Does HH have a closed water source (Yes)    1.465 (0.969–2.214), 0.070   0.620 (0.377–1.018), 0.059
House wall material (Bricks and stones vs. wood/mud/tent)      0.615 (0.370–1.024), 0.061
House floor material (cement/concrete vs. mud/earth/dung)     0.447 (0.276–0.723), 0.001  
Highest HoH education level (None vs. any)      0.633 (0.404–0.990), 0.045