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Table 1 Information on plant species, voucher specimens, traditional remedies and ethnobotanic sources indicating anti-malarial use

From: In vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity of plants from the Brazilian Amazon

Species Family Accession number Common name Remedy Source
Anacardium occidentale Anacardiaceae INPA 57941 Cajueiro Bark, leaves, fruit infusions, decoction (10 drops 2×/day of trunk bark alcohol extract) [58, 68, 82, 96, 109, 113]
Andropogon leucostachyus Poaceae INPA 250467 Capim-colchão Whole plant decoction [58]
Clidemia bullosa Melastomataceae INPA 250466 Caiuia Not founda Not founda
Croton cajucara Euphorbiaceae EAFM 315 Sacaca Bark and leaves infusions [58, 6268]
Derris floribunda Fabaceae INPA 15562 Timbó Branches [58]
Miconia nervosa Melastomataceae INPA 250467 Miraúba Decoction (part not specified) [58]
Parkia nítida Fabaceae INPA 152124 Faveira Not specified [58]
Paullinia cupana Sapindaceae INPA 122001 Guaraná Leaves, branches, roots, seeds [58, 63, 96, 97]
Stigmaphyllon sinuatum Malpighiaceae INPA 205629 Cipó asa de gafanhoto Leaves decoction [58]
Xylopia amazonica Annonaceae INPA 183108 Envira sarassará Not foundb Not foundb
Zanthoxylum djalma-batistae Rutaceae INPA 210077 Tamanqueira Not foundc Not foundc
  1. a Clidemia hirta is the species cited as being in use by traditional peoples of the Peruvian Amazon [38]
  2. bFruit and trunk bark macerates and infusions of these Xylopia spp. are used as anti-malarials: Xylopia aethiopica, Xylopia aromatica, Xylopia ​brasiliensis, Xylopia emarginata, Xylopia frutescens, Xylopia grandiflora, Xylopia hypolampra, Xylopia longifolia, Xylopia parviflora, Xylopia phloiodora, Xylopia staudtii, Xylopia xylopioides [30, 58, 8085, 125, 126]
  3. cThese Zanthoxylum spp. are used as anti-malarials: Zanthoxylum armatum, Zanthoxylum caribaem, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, Zanthoxylum chiloperone, Zanthoxylum gilletii, Zanthoxylum hermaphroditum, Zanthoxylum leprieurii, Zanthoxylum pentandrum, Zanthoxylum perrottetti, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, Zanthoxylum rubescens, Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba, Zanthoxylum tsihanimposa, Zanthoxylum usambarense, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. Leaf, fruit, trunk bark and root bark decoctions are used [33, 58, 59, 84, 85, 100105, 107110, 127129]