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Table 2 In vitro median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) against Plasmodium falciparum strains, toxicity to murine macrophages (IC50) and selectivity indices (SI) of plant extracts

From: In vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity of plants from the Brazilian Amazon

Plant species Part Extract P. falciparum a
IC50, µg/mL ± SDb
Macrophages
IC50, µg/mL (95 % CI)
SIc
Anacardium occidentale Bark CHCl3 36.6 ± 17.7 I >200 >5.5
EtOH >50 I
H2O(i) >50 I
Leaf CHCl3 43.9 ± 10.8 I >200 >4.6
EtOH >50 I
H2O(i) 45.0 ± 5.0 I >200 >4.4
Andropogon leucostachyus Aerial part CHCl3 >50 I
H2O(d) 45.4 ± 0.4 I >200 >4.4
MeOH 7.1 ± 3.3 A >200 >28.2
Clidemia bullosa Leaf CHCl3 >50 I
H2O(d) 26.2 ± 3.1 I >200 >7.6
MeOH >50 I
Branch CHCl3 13.5 ± 2.7 MA >200 >14.8
H2O(d) 21.2 ± 4.0 MA
MeOH >50 I
Croton cajucara (white variety-WV) Bark CHCl3 29.1 ± 6.3 I 43.1 (27.4–67.8) 1.5
EtOH 17.2 ± 6.6 MA 127 (49.8–321) 7.4
H2O(i) >50 I
Leaf CHCl3 11.3 ± 3.4 MA >200 >17.7
EtOH 16.3 ± 4.5 MA >200 >12.3
H2O(i) >50 I
Croton cajucara (red variety-RV) Bark CHCl3 32.2 ± 5.7 I >200 >6.2
EtOH >50 I
H2O(i) >50 I
Leaf CHCl3 6.4 ± 1.2 A 40.6 (32.6–50.6) 6.3
EtOH 13.3 ± 2.3 MA >200 >15.0
H2O(i) >50 I
Derris floribunda Bark CHCl3 >50 I
H2O(i) >50 I
MeOH >50 I
Leaf CHCl3 47.4 ± 1.6 I >200 >4.2
H2O(i) 27.5 ± 7.5 I
MeOH >50 I
Miconia nervosa Bark CHCl3 13.3 ± 2.0 MA 46.6 (43.1–50.4) 3.5
H2O(d) >50 I
MeOH >50 I
Leaf CHCl3 12.4 ± 4.1 MA 70.6 (62.7–79.7) 5.7
H2O(d) 10.2 ± 2.5 MA >200 >19.6
MeOH 9.9 ± 3.2 A 95.9 (71.0–130) 9.7
Parkia nitida Bark CHCl3 >50 I
H2O(d) >50 I
MeOH >50 I
Leaf CHCl3 >50 I
H2O(d) >50 I
MeOH >50 I
Paullinia cupana Leaf CHCl3 >50 I
H2O(i) >50 I
MeOH >50 I
Fruit CHCl3 19.3 ± 6.4 MA >200 >10.4
H2O(i) >50 I
MeOH >50 I
Branch CHCl3 19.3 ± 5.5 MA 62.9 (53.9–73.4) 3.3
H2O(i) >50 I
MeOH >50 I
Stigmaphyllon sinuatum Leaf CHCl3 >50 I
EtOH >50 I
H2O(i) >50 I
Xylopia amazonica Leaf CHCl3 7.3 ± 1.8 A 33.9 (29.6–38.9) 4.6
H2O(d) 10.5 ± 3.3 MA >200 >19.0
EtOH >50 I
Branch CHCl3 19.5 ± 3.1 MA 29.2 (19.6–43.5) 1.5
H2O(d) >50 I
EtOH 9.8 ± 1.8 A 6.9 (0.4–12.1) 0.7
Zanthoxylum djalma-batistae Leaf CHCl3 40.2 ± 3.2 I >200 >5.0
H2O(i) 15.6 ± 2.9 MA >200 >12.8
MeOH >50 I
Branch CHCl3 17.4 ± 1.3 MA 24.7 (18.6–32.9) 1.4
H2O(i) 32.5 ± 7.9 I >200 >6.2
MeOH 21.8 ± 3.7 I >200 >9.2
Controls DMSO I
Chloroquine diphosphate 0.23 ± 0.03 A
  Doxorubicin 0.63 (0.59–0.68)
  1. EtOH ethanol, MeOH methanol, H 2 O(i) infusion, H 2 O(d) decoction, SD standard deviation, 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval,  – not evaluated, not determined
  2. aAll extracts were screened at 50 and 5 mg/mL against P. falciparum K1 strain using optical microscopy in three separate experiments. Accurate IC50 values were determined using seven concentrations of extract against P. falciparum W2 strain using the HRP2-ELISA method
  3. bAntiplasmodial effect based on IC50: A active (IC50 ≤ 10 µg/mL), MA moderately active (10 < IC50 ≤ 25 μg/mL) and I inactive (IC50 > 25 μg/mL)
  4. cSI = IC50(murine macrophages)/IC50(P. falciparum)
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