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Table 1 Comparison of planning processes for IRS pre- and post-targeted approach

From: Targeting indoor residual spraying for malaria using epidemiological data: a case study of the Zambia experience

  Prior to targeted approach Targeted approach
IRS commodity planning Commodities needed are estimated by multiplying the number of houses sprayed the previous year by an estimate of population growth Commodities needed are calculated based on households mapped and targeted
IRS identification of structures One month spent conducting a ground based census; stickers on doors identify households for spraying One week spent enumerating structures from freely available satellite imagery through a desktop exercise
IRS targeting Clusters of households identified for spraying based on geographic proximity to district health facilities and roads, and risk according to local knowledge All households mapped, clusters of 25 or more households created, monthly health facility incidence calculated, clusters selected based on household density and clinical malaria incidence
IRS planning Largely based on accessibility for spray teams and local knowledge/perception of malaria burden Based on malaria incidence reported to health centers and population density, then subjected to local review
IRS implementation Paper-based data recording Mapped houses guide implementation. During IRS, all geographic positioning system (GPS) coordinates recorded in real-time allowing for ‘mop up’ of missed households
IRS surveillance Malaria indicator survey (MIS) provides data on whether houses were sprayed. This survey occurs once every 3 years All GPS coordinates for sprayed and unsprayed houses recorded for analysis