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Table 3 Risk factors for non-falciparum malaria infections overall at first ANC attendance

From: Non-falciparum malaria infections in pregnant women in West Africa

Risk factor Crude OR (95 % CI) p value Adjusted OR (95 % CI) p value
Country     
 Ghana [Reference] [Reference]
 Burkina Faso 0.74 (0.22, 2.46) 0.627 0.53 (0.14, 2.03) 0.353
 Gambia 0.08 (0.01, 0.69) 0.021 0.10 (0.01, 0.88) 0.038
 Mali 2.52 (1.01, 6.28) 0.047 6.54 (1.79, 23.9) 0.005
Gravidity     
 Primigravid [Reference] [Reference]
 Secundigravid 0.85 (0.42, 1.69) 0.639 0.71 (0.33, 1.54) 0.386
Gestational age     
 <20 weeks [Reference] [Reference]
 20–24 weeks 1.51 (0.70, 3.23) 0.290 1.92 (0.85, 4.31) 0.115
 25–30 weeks 0.57 (0.12, 2.64) 0.469 0.60 (0.12, 2.90) 0.521
Age     
 Under 18 years [Reference] [Reference]
 18–20 years 2.98 (0.86, 10.3) 0.084 3.77 (1.03, 13.8) 0.045
 21–24 years 1.38 (0.32, 5.83) 0.665 2.14 (0.43, 10.6) 0.351
 25 years + 1.75 (0.36, 8.41) 0.484 2.54 (0.45, 14.3) 0.290
Education level     
 1-none [Reference] [Reference]
 2-basic 0.92 (0.43, 1.96) 0.833 0.96 (0.41, 2.22) 0.924
 3-secondary 0.27 (0.06, 1.23) 0.092 0.27 (0.05, 1.32) 0.106
 4-tertiary 1.36 (0.17, 11.2) 0.774 3.73 (0.35, 40.2) 0.277
Season enrolled     
 Early wet (6–8) [Reference] [Reference]
 Late wet(9–11) 5.59 (2.10, 14.9) 0.001 7.10 (2.56, 19.7) <0.001
 Early dry (12–2) 2.84 (0.97, 8.27) 0.056 2.54 (0.84, 7.67) 0.098
 Late dry(3–5) 1.76 (0.66, 4.69) 0.260 1.85 (0.68, 5.04) 0.228
SES     
 1-wealthiest [Reference] [Reference]
 2-wealthy 2.14 (0.85, 5.34) 0.105 1.82 (0.68, 4.83) 0.230
 3-medium 1.07 (0.21, 5.33) 0.935 0.96 (0.18, 5.02) 0.963
 4-poor 6.30 (1.83, 21.7) 0.004 6.48 (1.68, 25.0) 0.007
 5-poorest 5.89 (1.35, 25.7) 0.018 6.55 (1.27, 33.7) 0.024
  1. Crude ORs for gravidity, gestational age, age, education level, season of enrolment, and social economic status are adjusted for country as an a priori covariate. Adjusted ORs presented adjusted for all other covariates in the multivariable model. Gestational age at enrolment was assessed by symphysis-fundal height. Educational level reported by the mother at the enrolment visit. Season enrolled indicates the month of the year when the woman first presented to ANC and was enrolled into the study. Socio-economic status defined using principal components analysis of durable household assets and household amenities, as described in [16]