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Fig. 1 | Malaria Journal

Fig. 1

From: Comparative genome-wide analysis and evolutionary history of haemoglobin-processing and haem detoxification enzymes in malarial parasites

Fig. 1

Diagram depicting haemoglobin degradation and haemozoin synthesis in Plasmodium falciparum. Haemoglobin is taken up into the parasite via cytostome, passing through parasite membrane and parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). Double-membrane vesicle containing red blood cell content as observed in a cross-section delivers Hb into the food vacuole [50]. A series of proteases in the plasmepsin (PM), falcipain (FP) and falcilysin (FLN) family digest Hb into either free amino acid or short peptide. Haem from digested Hb is packed into polymerized crystal called haemozoin with help from haem detoxification protein (HDP) and histidine-rich protein (HRP). Lipid biomolecules from either food vacuole membrane or droplet are suggested to promote haemozoin synthesis probably by seeding and directing crystal growth [51]

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