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Table 1 Reactivity to AMA1, MSP1-19, MSP3 and 3D7 lysate stratified by country and gender

From: Acquired immune responses to three malaria vaccine candidates and their relationship to invasion inhibition in two populations naturally exposed to malaria

  Ghana Madagascar Kuskal–Wallis Dunn‘s post test
Female (A) Male (B) Female (C) Male (D) p (A vs. B) p (C vs. D) P (A vs. C) P (B vs. D)
Age (years, ± SD) 32.2 ± 7.4 29.2 ± 4.7 37.5 ± 5.1 38.7 ± 5.7 <0.0001 0.1617 >0.9999 0.001 <0.0001
AMA1 (AU) 1.6 (1.2–1.9) 3.0 (1.9–4.2) 0.7 (0.1–1.3) 0.9 (0.4–1.4) <0.0001 0.5952 0.2926 <0.0001 0.0011
MSP1-19 (AU) 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 1.5 (0.9–2.0) 0.7 (0.0–1.4) 0.8 (−0.3–1.9) 0.0002 0.3937 >0.9999 0.0294 0.0043
MSP3 (AU) 1.0 (0.5–1.4) 2.0 (1.5–2.6) 1.0 (0.3–1.7) 0.9 (−0.2–2.1) <0.0001 0.0141 >0.9999 0.2725 0.0002
3D7 lysate (AU) 3.5 (2.6–4.4) 5.2 (4.1–6.3) 2.3 (0.9–3.7) 2.4 (1.1–3.7) <0.0001 0.0423 0.701 0.003 0.0005
Prevalence of antibodies to the variant antigens (%)   Chi square test
N 33 45 40 18   p (A vs. B) p (C vs. D) p (A vs. C) p (B vs. D)
AMA1 21 (63.6) 34 (75.6) 5 (12.5) 7 (38.9)   0.2541 0.0217 <0.0001 0.0058
MSP1-19 6 (18.2) 17 (37.8) 4 (10.0) 2 (11.1)   0.0608 0.8977 0.3116 0.0372
MSP3 11 (33.3) 28 (62.2) 9 (22.5) 3 (16.7)   0.0117 0.6119 0.3017 0.0011
3D7 lysate 27 (81.8) 44 (87.8) 14 (35) 9 (50.0)   0.0148 0.2800 <0.0001 <0.0001
  1. Continuous data are presented as mean ± SD for the age and as means with 95 % confidence interval for the antigens reactivity and analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test and Dunn’s post test. Categorical data are presented as proportions and analyzed using a Chi square test