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Table 1 Bivariate and multivariate multilevel analysis of the association between Plasmodium infection (assessed by RDT) and demographic and epidemiological variables, South-Eastern Madagascar, 2012

From: Multiple causes of an unexpected malaria outbreak in a high-transmission area in Madagascar

Variable N (% RDT positive) Bivariate Multivariate
Crude OR [95 % CI] p Adjusted OR [95 % CI] p
Bed net use
 Every night 1009 (22.6) 0.49 (0.33–0.72) <0.001 0.51 (0.32–0.82) 0.005
 Irregular 225 (32.0) 0.84 (0.60–1.19) 0.331 0.95 (0.62–1.43) 0.791
 Never 297 (31.0) 1.00   1.00  
Age group
 0–5 years 410 (32.9) 5.15 (2.38–11.15) <0.001 5.51 (2.48–12.26) <0.001
 6–14 years 395 (39.2) 7.42 (3.52–15.65) <0.001 7.73 (3.58–16.68) <0.001
 15–49 years 594 (15.7) 2.21 (1.06–4.63) 0.036 2.32 (1.09–4.96) 0.029
 ≥50 years 132 (6.8) 1.00   1.00  
Sex
 Male 630 (28.1) 1.00   1.00  
 Female 901 (23.9) 0.79 (0.62–1.01) 0.064 0.97 (0.73–1.30) 0.862
Travel history
 None 1179 (27.0) 1.00    
 ≤10 km 217 (24.0) 0.77 (0.48–1.23) 0.271   
 11–50 km 103 (16.5) 0.65 (0.37–1.14) 0.131   
 >50 km 32 (15.6) 0.69 (0.25–1.91) 0.472   
Socio-economic tercile
 First (poorest) 566 (32.2) 1.74 (1.31–2.30) <0.001 1.54 (1.13–2.08) 0.006
 Second 459 (27.0) 1.48 (1.01–2.15) 0.043 1.46 (0.99–2.15) 0.058
 Third (wealthiest) 506 (17.0) 1.00   1.00  
Area type
 Rural 1311 (29.0) 8.59 (6.45–11.44) <0.001 6.25 (4.46–8.76) <0.001
 Suburban 153 (5.9) 1.26 (0.67–2.40) 0.475 1.15 (0.59–2.23) 0.677
 Urban 67 (4.5) 1.00   1.00  
ACT shortages last 6 months
 No (4 sites) 272 (21.0) 1.00    
 Yes (14 sites) 1131 (27.9) 1.46 (0.70–3.06) 0.313   
 Unknown (2 sites) 128 (14.8) 0.79 (0.22–2.78) 0.711