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Table 3 Association between antibody levels and clinical malaria among children from Burkina Faso and Ghana

From: Antibody levels against GLURP R2, MSP1 block 2 hybrid and AS202.11 and the risk of malaria in children living in hyperendemic (Burkina Faso) and hypo-endemic (Ghana) areas

Antibody Antigens Burkina Faso Ghana Overall
Crude HR (95 % CI) HR adjusted for age (95 % CI)a p value for adjusted HR Crude HR (95 % CI) HR adjusted for age (95 % CI)a p value for adjusted HR Crude HR (95 % CI)b HR adjusted for age (95 % CI)b p value for adjusted HR
IgG GLURP R2 0.75 (0.66, 0.85) 0.84 (0.73, 0.97) 0.01 0.77 (0.44, 1.34) 0.73 (0.41, 1.30) 0.28 0.75 (0.66, 0.85) 0.85 (0.74, 0.97) 0.02
MSP1-hybrid 0.73 (0.61, 0.87) 0.83 (0.70, 0.98) 0.03 1.40 (0.64, 3.08) 1.19 (0.57, 2.50) 0.64 0.75 (0.63, 0.89) 0.85 (0.72, 1.01) 0.06
AS202.11 0.93 (0.82, 1.05) 0.97 (0.87, 1.09) 0.65 1.37 (0.89, 2.11) 1.15 (0.85, 1.56) 0.38 0.93 (0.82, 1.06) 0.98 (0.88, 1.10) 0.76
IgG1 GLURP R2 0.86 (0.73, 1.00) 0.97 (0.82, 1.14) 0.68 0.93 (0.47, 1.85) 0.91 (0.45, 1.86) 0.8 0.86 (0.74, 1.00) 0.97 (0.83, 1.14) 0.69
MSP1-hybrid 0.96 (0.75, 1.23) 0.96 (0.77, 1.21) 0.76 1.22 (0.78, 1.92) 1.03 (0.67, 1.58) 0.91 1.00 (0.80, 1.25) 1.01 (0.82, 1.24) 0.94
IgG2 GLURP R2 0.74 (0.65, 0.83) 0.85 (0.75, 0.96) 0.01 1.45 (0.71, 2.97) 1.24 (0.64, 2.43) 0.52 0.74 (0.66,0.84) 0.86 (0.76, 0.98) 0.02
MSP1-hybrid 0.73 (0.59, 0.91) 0.87 (0.70, 1.08) 0.2 1.19 (0.47, 3.01) 1.17 (0.51, 2.67) 0.72 0.74 (0.60, 0.92) 0.89 (0.72, 1.10) 0.27
IgG3 GLURP R2 0.73 (0.66, 0.81) 0.81 (0.73, 0.90) <0.0001 0.48 (0.25, 0.93) 0.54 (0.30, 0.98) 0.04 0.73 (0.66, 0.81) 0.81 (0.73, 0.90) <0.0001
MSP1-hybrid 0.85 (0.78, 0.93) 0.91 (0.84, 0.99) 0.04 0.82 (0.38, 1.77) 0.83 (0.33, 2.08) 0.69 0.86 (0.78, 0.94) 0.92 (0.84, 1.00) 0.05
IgG4 GLURP R2 0.79 (0.68, 0.92) 0.85 (0.73, 0.98) 0.02 1.18 (0.31, 4.57) 1.30 (0.38, 4.43) 0.68 0.79 (0.68, 0.92) 0.85 (0.73, 0.98) 0.02
MSP1-hybrid 0.95 (0.83, 1.09) 0.97 (0.85, 1.11) 0.65 1.14 (0.32, 4.03) 0.82 (0.29, 2.31) 0.7 0.95 (0.83, 1.09) 0.98 (0.86, 1.11) 0.73
IgM GLURP R2 0.66 (0.55, 0.79) 0.77 (0.63, 0.95) 0.01 0.70 (0.14, 3.57) 1.14 (0.24, 5.40) 0.87 0.66 (0.55, 0.79) 0.78 (0.64, 0.95) 0.02
MSP1-hybrid 0.72 (0.63, 0.84) 0.81 (0.70, 0.94) 0.01 1.42 (0.25, 8.07) 1.68 (0.36, 7.93) 0.51 0.73 (0.63, 0.84) 0.82 (0.70, 0.95) 0.01
AS202.11 0.86 (0.74, 0.99) 0.92 (0.80, 1.05) 0.23 0.58 (0.23, 1.45) 0.70 (0.26, 1.90) 0.49 0.85 (0.74, 0.98) 0.92 (0.80, 1.06) 0.23
  1. Crude hazard ratios (HR) as well as age-adjusted HR and p values are shown, indicating the ratio of malaria hazard rates associated with a tenfold increase in baseline antibody level
  2. a95 % CI were estimated using Cox regression model with robust standard error to adjust for clustering in children
  3. bStratified estimates (i.e., equal coefficients across sites but with baseline hazard unique to each site)