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Table 3 Molecular findings

From: Clinical trials of artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Afghanistan: maintained efficacy a decade after introduction

Study Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Total  
Province Jalalabad Takhar Faryab Kunar Jalalabad Kunar
DHFR % with mutation
 A16 V 32/0 3/0 2/0 7/0 71/0 49/0 164/0 0
 N51I 32/0 3/0 2/0 7/0 71/0 49/0 164/0 0
 C59R 2/30 0/3 0/2 0/7 5/66 2/47 9/155 94.5
 S108 N 0/32 0/3 0/2 0/7 0/71 0/49 0/164 100.0
 I164L 32/0 3/0 2/0 7/0 70/0 49/0 163/0 0
DHPS
 S436A 43/0 6/0 2/0 9/0 83/0 53/1 196/1 0.5
 A437G 38/3 6/0 1/1a 4/4 80/3 50/4 179/15 7.7
 K540E 42/1 6/0 2/0 5/4 83/0 52/0 190/5 2.6
 A581G 40/3 6/0 1/1 5/4 34/0 47/7 133/15 10.1
 A613S 43/0 6/0 2/0 9/0 34/0 54/0 148/0 0
DHFR haplotype Proportion (%)
 ANCNI 2     5 2 9 5.5
 ANRNI 30 3 2 7 65 47 154 94.5
DHPS haplotype
 SAKAA 38 6 1 4 34 41 124 86.7
 SAKGA       6 6 4.2
 SGEGA 1    4    5 3.5
 SGKAA 1      3 4 2.8
 SGKGA 1      1 2 1.4
 SSKGA    1     1 0.7
 AAKAA       1 1 0.7
  1. Number of wild-type/mutant samples at five resistance loci in each of the dhfr and dhps genes, and resulting haplotypes (with mutations in italics). Results indicating mixed wild-type/mutant alleles were counted as mutations. Only haplotypes in which all five loci were successfully determined are described
  2. aOne sample had the dhps A437S mutation