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Table 3 Results of Wilcoxon tests comparing available candidate driver variables in 1900 and at the per-country period of malaria decline, as well as for per-country malaria decline and elimination

From: Exploring the spatiotemporal drivers of malaria elimination in Europe

Variable 1900 vs malaria decline Malaria decline vs elimination
z p value z p value
Temperature −4.2916 <0.0001 3.8508 <0.0001
Frost day frequency 4.2916 <0.0001 −2.2144 <0.05
Precipitation 1.7049 0.09 −3.253 <0.001
GDP −4.4092 <0.0001 −4.8599 <0.0001
Life expectancy −4.8599 <0.0001 −4.8599 <0.0001
Percentage urban population −4.8599 <0.0001 −4.8599 <0.0001
Percentage urban area −2.9102 <0.01 −4.8599 <0.0001
Percentage cropland −4.1153 <0.0001 −4.5268 <0.0001
Percentage grassland −3.0963 <0.01 −2.7043 <0.01