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Table 4 Results of Mann–Whitney tests comparing available candidate elimination driver variables in Europe at the time of malaria decline and elimination versus those for current malaria eliminating countries in the present day

From: Exploring the spatiotemporal drivers of malaria elimination in Europe

Variable Europe at the time of malaria decline vs eliminating countries in the present day Europe at the time of malaria elimination vs eliminating countries in the present day
z p value z p value
Temperature −5.4769 <0.0001 −5.6214 <0.0001
Frost day frequency 5.1485 <0.0001 5.2273 <0.0001
Precipitation −2.5086 <0.05 −2.0095 <0.05
GDP −3.6775 <0.001 −0.52536 0.6062
Life expectancy −5.9633 <0.0001 −3.7304 <0.001
Percentage urban population −2.4167 <0.05 0.27581 0.7892
Percentage urban area −1.3659 0.1752 0.6567 0.5181
Percentage cropland 4.3999 <0.0001 4.7677 <0.0001
Percentage grassland −0.26268 0.7992 −0.15761 0.8808