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Table 3 Univariate associations between factors investigated for association with Plasmodium infection by RDT and by PCR, and adjusted odds ratios, 95 % confidence intervals and p values for variables retained in final multivariate models

From: Reactive case-detection of malaria in Pailin Province, Western Cambodia: lessons from a year-long evaluation in a pre-elimination setting

  Univariate Multivariate
Variable Crude OR 95 % CI p Adjusted OR 95 % CI p
P. falciparum positive by PCRa
 Household category
  Index household 1.00 1
  Five closest HH 1.00 1
  Ten closest HH 1.00 1
  High incidence control HH 100.37 23.06, 436.79 <0.001 148.17 28.92, 759.01 <0.001
  Low incidence control HH 27.77 5.83, 132.17 <0.001 35.43 7.02, 179.03 <0.001
 Village burden 2013
  <5 cases in 2013 1.00
  ≥5 cases in 2013 1.74 0.70, 4.34 0.231
Village distance to forest
  <500 m 1.00
  500 m–1 km 1.62 0.58, 4.58 0.360
  1–2 km 0.55 0.07, 4.44 0.576
  2–5 km 1.43 0.36, 5.71 0.609
 Measured fever (>37.2 °C) 11.92 4.31, 32.91 <0.001 3.94 1.33, 11.65 0.013
 Adult male (vs. all other age/sex groups) 1.58 0.80, 3.12 0.184
 Used mosquito net last night 0.30 0.90, 0.97 0.045 0.19 0.52, 0.68 0.011
 Previous malaria (ever) 1.58 0.40, 6.21 0.512 6.62 1.08, 40.46 0.041
P. vivax positive by PCRa
 Household category       
  Index household 1.00
  Five closest HH 0.40 0.05, 3.18 0.387
  Ten closest HH 0.69 0.14, 3.37 0.647
  High incidence control HH 1.00
  Low incidence control HH 1.00
 Village burden 2013       
  <5 cases in 2013 1.00
  ≥5 cases in 2013 2.85 0.60, 13.58 0.188
 Village distance to forest
  <500 m 1.00
  500 m–1 km 0.60 0.13, 2.83 0.519
  1–2 km 0.55 0.07, 4.26 0.568
  2–5 km 0.35 0.04, 2.82 0.327
 Measured fever (>37.2 °C) 4.54 1.06, 19.41 0.041 4.03 0.95, 16.90 0.058
 Adult male (vs. all other age/sex groups) 1.60 0.72, 3.58 0.245
 Used mosquito net last night 0.62 0.08, 4.63 0.641
 Previous malaria (ever) 4.47 1.05, 19.11 <0.001 12.11 4.48, 32.75 <0.001
All species, positive by RDT
 Household category
  Index household 1.00
  Five closest HH 4.08 0.99, 16.89 0.052
  Ten closest HH 1.67 0.19. 14.47 0.642
  High incidence control HH
  Low incidence control HH
 Village burden 2013       
  <5 cases in 2013 1.00
  ≥5 cases in 2013 1.03 0.25, 4.31 0.964    
 Village distance to forest       
  <500 m 1.00
  500 m–1 km 3.56 0.80, 15.80 0.095    
  1–2 km 1.00
  2–5 km 1.337466 0.14, 12.41 0.798
 Measured fever (>37.2 °C) 9.36 1.74, 50.31 0.009 8.37 1.54, 45.59 0.014
 Adult male (vs. all other age/sex groups) 2.902508 0.90, 9.35 0.074
 Used mosquito net last night
 Previous malaria (ever) 8.71 2.05, 37.05 0.003 8.31 1.95, 35.40 0.004
  1. a Mixed infections considered as positive for each species