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Table 1 Study sites and their characteristics

From: Malaria in three epidemiological strata in Mauritania

Sites Province, regiona Location Number of inhabitantsb Key geographic and climatic features
Sahelian zone
 Keurmassen Keurmassen, Trarza 16°33′ N, 16°14′ W 5324 Situated at 45 km from the Diama dam constructed on the Senegal River (low valley); commercial and agricultural centre; irrigated rice fields in the periphery; annual rainfall, 180–300 mm; mean annual temperature 28 °C (range, 24 °C [December–January] to 38 °C [May–July]); relative humidity, 42 % (June-July) to 88 % (August–September)
 Boghé Boghé, Brakna 16°35′ N, 14°16′ W 37,139 Located along the Senegalese-Mauritanian border and along the Senegal River (middle valley); commercial and agricultural centre; irrigated rice fields in the periphery; annual rainfall, 300–380 mm; mean annual temperature 35 °C (range, 28 °C [December–January] to 42 °C [April–June]); relative humidity, 26 % (May–June) to 72 % (August–September)
 Gouraye Selibabi, Guidimakha 14°54′ N, 12°27′ W 2009 Commercial and agricultural centre situated along the Senegalese-Mauritanian border (high valley); flood recession agriculture; annual rainfall, 300–480 mm; mean annual temperature 36 °C (range, 29 °C [December–February] to 43 °C [April–May]); relative humidity, 28 % (May–June) to 74 % (August–September)
 Ghabou Selibabi, Guidimakha 18°18′ N, 14°98′ W 4120 Located at the upstream sector of the Senegal River (intersection of 3 countries, i.e., Mauritania, Senegal, and Mali); water retention structure (called Kara Koro) for flood recession cropping; annual rainfall, 300–500 mm; mean annual temperature 36 °C (range, 29 °C [December–February] to 43 °C [April–May]); relative humidity, 28 % (May–June) to 76 % (August–September)
Sahelo-Saharan transition zone
 Kobeni Kobeni, Hodh Elgharbi 15°49′ N, 09°24′ W 2336 Administrative, commercial, and agricultural-pastoral centre along Aioun-Nioro route that links Nouakchott (980 km northwest of Kobeni) and Mali; lies about 20 km from the border with Mali; city surrounded by several artificial lakes, ponds, and backwater; annual rainfall, 200–320 mm; mean annual temperature 35 °C (range, 28 °C [January–February] to 44 °C [April–May]); relative humidity, 19 % (May–June) to 76 % (August–September)
 Tamcheket Tamcheket, Hodh Elgarbi 17°14′ N, 10°40 W 1915 Large town on a sand dune near a semi-permanent artificial lake that divides the town into northern (Tamcheket) and southern sector (Loued); a commercial and cultural centre at the crossroads of ancient tracks that led to the Tagant plateau; annual rainfall, 100–220 mm; mean annual temperature 30 °C (range, 27 °C [December–January] to 42 °C [April–June]); relative humidity, 20 % (May–June) to 66 % (August–September)
 Kankossa Kankossa, Assaba 15°56′ N, 11°31′ W 10,470 Situated about 80 km southeast of the regional capital, Kiffa; a 30-km long permanent lake in the city allows flood-recession crop production, palm production, and market gardening; annual rainfall, 300–400 mm; mean annual temperature 33 °C (range, 31 °C [January–February] to 42 °C [May–June]); relative humidity, 32 % (May–June) to 78 % (August–September)
 Nbeika Moudjeria, Tagant 17°59′ N, 12°15′ W 1956 A small oasis village situated 15 km from Moudjeria city and 480 km to the east of Nouakchott; surrounded by rocky cliffs and mountains overlain by sand dunes; permanent artificial lakes allow market gardening in the village; although situated in the Saharan desert, its mountainous geography, location on the Tagant plateau (altitude, 225 m), and rainfall are characteristics of the sahelo-Saharan zone; annual rainfall, 100–140 mm; mean annual temperature 36 °C (range, 28 °C [December–February] to 42 °C [May–July]); relative humidity, 25 % (May–June) to 63 % (August–September)
Saharan zone
 Aoujeft Aoujeft, Adrar 19°58’ N, 13°04’ W 3241 450 km from Nouakchott; despite its scarce vegetation, arid climate, and low annual rainfall (rainy season from August–October), the Adrar mountain ranges create a unique microclimate; oasis; annual rainfall, 50–80 mm; mean annual temperature 37 °C (range, 25 °C [December–January] to 44 °C [May–June]); relative humidity, 22 % (May–June) to 55 % (September–October)
 Akjoujt Akjoujt, Inchiri 19°45′ N, 14°23′ W 5870 A mining town located 265 km to the northwest of Nouakchott; very short rainy season (September); oasis; main livelihood, camel herding; annual rainfall, 20–80 mm; mean annual temperature 37 °C (range, 26 °C [December–February] to 45 °C [May–July]); relative humidity, 18 % (May–June) to 55 % (September–October)
 Nouakchottc Capital city 18°06′ N, 15°57′ W 800,000 A coastal city that occupies a surface area of 1,000 km2 and extends 25 km from north to south; almost one-third of the Mauritanian population resides in Nouakchott; market gardens in Darnaim and Teyarett districts; annual rainfall, 50–100 mm; mean annual temperature, 30 °C (range, 22 °C in December to 40 °C in June); relative humidity, 30 % (May–June) to 80 % (August–September)
  1. aProvinces are locally called ‘moughataa’ (there are 54 moughataas in the country), and regions refer to ‘wilaya’ (there are 15 wilayas or regions in the country)
  2. bData from Ref. [10]
  3. cThe present study was conducted in Dar Naim and Teyarett districts in the northern part of Nouakchott where market gardening is largely practiced. A previous study conducted in Nouakchott has shown that, among nine districts, Dar Naim and Teyarett have the highest malaria prevalence among febrile patients consulting at two main hospitals in the capital city [3]