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Table 1 Yearly summary of clinical, parasitological, serological and entomological markers in the study area

From: Malaria hotspots defined by clinical malaria, asymptomatic carriage, PCR and vector numbers in a low transmission area on the Kenyan Coast

  Year 2012 2013
Longitudinal study Homesteads/population 633/831 633/831
Homesteads with malaria 65 (10.3 %) 22 (3.5 %)
Malaria cases 112 (13.5 %) 28 (3.4 %)
Cross-sectional studies Homesteads/population 211/779 183/797
Homesteads with positive blood films 8 (3.8 %) 2 (1.1 %)
Homesteads with positive PCR tests 31 (14.7 %) 22 (12 %)
Prevalence asymptomatic infection (microscopy), (95 % CI) 2 % (1.2–3.2) 0.2 % (0.03–0.9)
Prevalence asymptomatic infection (PCR), (95 % CI) 6.2 % (4.6–8) 3.3 % (2.2–4.8)
Seroprevalence of antibodies to AMA1, (95 % CI) 36.1 % (32.7–39.5) 20.4 % (17.7–23.4)
Seroprevalence of antibodies to MSP1-19, (95 % CI) 19.9 % (17.1–22.9) 10.5 % (8.5–12.9)
Entomological surveys Homesteads 145 142
Homesteads with Anopheles 35 (24 %) 8 (6 %)
Range of Anopheles captured/house 0–17 0–6
Total Anopheles captured 101 15
Total An. gambiae captured 85 5
Total An. funestus captured 16 10