Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptive statistics for the study sample for perinatally HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) and exposed and uninfected (HEU)

From: Malaria illness mediated by anaemia lessens cognitive development in younger Ugandan children

Characteristic Perinatally HIV unexposed and uninfected (HUU)
N = 325 at 2 years
N = 331 at 3 years
Perinatally HIV exposed and uninfected (HEU)
N = 143 at 2 years
N = 122 at 3 years
Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Age at first MSEL neurodevelopmental assessment (years) 2.20 (0.16) 2.17 (0.16)
Age at second MSEL neurodevelopmental assessment (years) 3.02 (0.06) 3.05 (0.14)
Weight-for-age z-score at first assessmenta −0.10 (1.09)* −0.38 (1.03)
Weight-for-age z-score at second assessmenta −1.25 (1.05) −1.24 (0.98)
Days of observation prior to randomization 22.13 (15.51) 204.39 (107.27)
Days breastfeeding before 2 years of age 634.48 (95.79)*** 284.82 (106.76)
Days breastfeeding between 2 and 3 years of age 12.92 (31.42)*** 0 (0)
Number of malaria episodes before 2 years of age 7.38 (4.95) 4.27 (4.21)***
Number of malaria episodes between 2 and 3 years 7.93 (3.93) 6.27 (4.19)*
Number of anaemia episodes (Hb < 10 gm/dL) before 2 years 7.10 (5.37) 5.56 (4.97)*
Number of anaemia episodes (Hb < 10 gm/dL) between 2 and 3 years 0.56 (0.76) 0.70 (0.80)
MSEL gross motor (raw score) at 2 years 23.5 (3.28) 23.4 (3.16)
MSEL gross motor (raw score) at 3 years 27.5 (3.14) 27.3 (3.13)
MSEL visual reception (T score) at 2 years 35.0 (9.22) 34.0 (9.65)
MSEL visual reception (T score) at 3 years 31.8 (10.06) 29.6 (10.52)
MSEL fine motor (T score) at 2 years 33.8 (9.24) 33.5 (9.38)
MSEL fine motor (T score) at 3 years 36.5 (7.85) 34.9 (8.68)
MSEL receptive language (T score) at 2 years 41.4 (10.4) 40.9 (10.38)
MSEL receptive language (T score) at 3 years 42.0 (7.71)** 39.4 (8.45)
MSEL expressive language (T score) at 2 years 36.1 (7.91)* 34.5 (7.57)
MSEL expressive language (T score) at 3 years 37.4 (10.77) 37.3 (11.43)
MSEL composite cognitive total (standard score) at 2 years 75.0 (12.04) 73.6 (12.15)
MSEL composite cognitive total (standard score) at 3 years 75.6 (11.94)** 72.0 (10.14)
Sex N (%) N (%)
Male 174 (53) 63 (52)
Female 152 (47) 59 (48)
Treatment arm from 6 months to 3 years of age N (%) N (%)
No chemoprevention (placebo) 85 (25) 33 (27)
Monthly sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) 85 (26) 26 (21)
Daily trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (TS) 80 (24) 29 (24)
Monthly dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DP) 81 (25) 34 (28)
  1. * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001
  2. az scores for this physical growth measure were based on World Health Organization 2013 global norms