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Table 2 Comparison of different malaria indices (CI) between control and pre-elimination phase (CP) and elimination phase (EP) in endemic areas of Iran, by parasites species and transmission routes—2001–2014

From: Assessment of the impact of the malaria elimination programme on the burden of disease morbidity in endemic areas of Iran

Parasite Transmission Nationality
Iranian/non-Iranian ratioa
Sex
Male/female ratioa
Age over
15/under 15 ratioa
Case detectionb
Active/passive ratioa
CP EP CP EP CP EP CP EP
Vivax A 16.8 (8.7–24.9) 4.9 (2.9–6.8) 1.5 (1.4–1.6) 2.3 (1.9–2.6) 1.3 (1.1–1.4) 2.5 (2.0–2.8) 1.5 (1.2–1.7) 1.1 (0.9–1.3)
I 1.0 (0.8–1.1) 0.8 (0.6–0.9) 2.8 (2.4–3.2) 4.4 (3.9–4.9) 2.3 (1.8–2.8) 4.0 (3.5–4.5) 0.5 (0.4–0.5) 0.7 (0.6–0.8)
S 5.9 (4.2–7.6) 1.7 (1.2–2.0) 1.6 (1.5–1.8) 3.1 (2.7–3.5) 1.4 (1.3–1.6) 3.1 (2.8–3.5) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.9 (0.8–1.0)
Falciparum A 4.3 (1.0–7.6) 3.1 (1.7–4.6) 1.8 (1.4–2.3) 3.0 (2.3–3.7) 2.0 (1.5–2.5) 3.9 (3.0–4.9) 0.6 (0.5–0.8) 0.8 (0.6–1.0)
I 0.6 (0.4–0.7) 0.7 (0.5–08) 2.7 (2.0–3.4) 5.8 (4.4–7.1) 2.2 (1.2–3.1) 5.0 (4.2–5.9) 0.4 (0.3–0.5) 0.6 (0.5–0.8)
S 1.5 (1.0–2.0) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 2.2 (1.8–2.6) 4.6 (4.0–5.2) 2.0 (1.6–2.6) 4.7 (4.0–5.3) 0.5 (0.4–0.6) 0.7 (0.6–0.8)
Total 4.6 (3.2–5.9) 1.5 (1.2–1.8) 1.7 (1.6–1.8) 3.3 (3.0–3.6) 1.5 (1.3–1.7) 3.3 (3.0–3.6) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.9 (0.8–0.9)
  1. A autochthonous, I imported, S sum
  2. aAll of the ratios examined statistically using multilevel Poisson regression with interaction terms for the phase (CP in compare to the EP). In all of the models, the interaction terms between the phase and the ratios were statistically significant except for the Iranian to non-Iranian ratio in imported vivax cases
  3. bGiven the high coverage of malaria laboratories and their accessibility, Passive Case Detection (PCD) takes place in all endemic rural and urban areas by examining blood smears for all suspected cases who attend the health units. Active Case Detection (ACD) is carried out as a routine activity by health worker through household visits in all endemic rural areas but in the urban areas it is limited to the active foci