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Table 3 Incidence rate and hazard ratios of Plasmodium falciparum episodes according to exposure status

From: Declining malaria transmission in rural Amazon: changing epidemiology and challenges to achieve elimination

  N episodes Person-years of follow-up Rate (episodes/100-PY) (95 % CI) Univariable IRR (95 % CI) P value Multivariable IRR (95 % CI) P value
Gender
Female 79 802 9.9 (7.9–12.3) 1   1 0.249
Male 118 998 11.8 (9.9–14.2) 1.2 (0.9–1.8) 0.175 1.2 (0.9–1.8)
Age (years)
0–10 51 451 11.3 (8.6–14.9) 1   1  
10–20 56 436 12.8 (9.9–16.7) 1.1 (0.6–1.7) 0.847 0.9 (0.6–1.6) 0.833
20–40 49 429 11.4 (8.6–15.1) 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 0.756 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 0.746
40–60 28 328 8.5 (6.0–12.3) 0.8 (0.4–1.4) 0.433 0.8 (0.4–1.5) 0.489
≥60 13 153 8.4 (4.9–14.5) 0.8 (0.4–1.9) 0.648 0.8 (0.4–1.9) 0.621
Socio-economic status
Lowest quintile 76 702 10.9 (8.6–13.5) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 0.592 0.9 (0.7–1.4) 0.821
2nd–4th quintiles 92 707 13.0 (10.6–16.0) 1   1  
Highest quintile 29 320 9.1 (6.3–13.0) 0.8 (0.5–1.4) 0.415 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.397
Season
Rainy 56 750 7.5 (5.7–9.7) 1 <0.001 1 <0.001
Dry 141 1049 13.4 (11.4–15.9) 1.7 (1.3–2.3) 1.7 (1.3–2.3)
Use of ITN
No 138 857 16.1 (13.6–19.0) 1 <0.001 1 <0.001
Yes 59 943 6.3 (4.8–8.1) 0.5 (0.3–0.7) 0.5 (0.3–0.7)
IRS in last 6 months
No 31 530 5.8 (4.1–8.3) 1 0.001 1 <0.001
Yes 166 1200 13.8 (11.9–16.1) 2.1 (1.3–3.4) 1.9 (1.2–3.3)