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Table 1 Bivariate and multivariate analyses of socio-demographic factors associated with RDT positivity (RDT +)

From: Post-deployment effectiveness of malaria control interventions on Plasmodium infections in Madagascar: a comprehensive phase IV assessment

Variable/category N % RDT+ Bivariate Bivariate Multivariate Multivariate
Crude OR [95 % CI] p Adj. OR [95 % CI] p
Age group (years)
 0–1 713 2.9 1.61 [0.84–3.09] 0.155 1.59 [0.80–3.14] 0.184
 2–4 1720 3.3 1.97 [1.29–3.01] 0.002 1.94 [1.22–3.09] 0.005
 5–9 2717 5.7 3.50 [2.57–4.77] <0.001 3.57 [2.51–5.08] <0.001
 10–14 2237 5.6 3.55 [2.55–4.94] <0.001 3.79 [2.62–5.48] <0.001
 15–19 1569 4.0 2.42 [1.76–3.34] <0.001 2.82 [1.93–4.11] <0.001
 20–39 3699 2.4 1.42 [1.02–1.98] <0.001 1.56 [1.08–2.25] 0.018
 ≥ 40 2821 1.6 1.00   1.00  
Sex
 Male 6673 4.5 1.00   1.00  
 Female 8803 2.9 0.65 [0.55–0.76] <0.001 0.66 [0.55–0.80] <0.001
Education level
 None or unknown 2627 5.1 1.87 [1.34–2.62] <0.001 1.95 [1.20–3.16] 0.007
 Primary 6493 4.2 2.06 [1.51–2.82] <0.001 2.01 [1.25–3.21] 0.004
 Lower secondary 4302 2.6 1.48 [1.07–2.06] 0.019 1.46 [0.90–2.36] 0.124
 Upper secondary/tertiary 2054 1.6 1.00   1.00  
SES quintile
 1st (poorest) 3095 6.2 1.51 [0.48–4.73] 0.483 2.49 [1.49–4.14] <0.001
 2nd 3101 4.7 1.88 [1.35–2.62] <0.001 2.26 [1.46–3.49] <0.001
 3rd 3138 2.7 2.07 [1.51–2.83] <0.001 1.51 [0.98–2.31] 0.061
 4th 3044 2.5 1.49 [1.07–2.06] 0.018 1.65 [1.18–2.31] 0.003
 5th (wealthiest) 3098 1.7 1.00   1.00  
Household permeability quintiles
 1st (most perm.) 3054 6.1 1.35 [0.91–2.01] 0.137   
 2nd 3141 4.0 1.29 [0.90–1.85] 0.167   
 3rd 3000 3.5 1.30 [0.96–1.76] 0.096   
 4th 3032 1.8 0.85 [0.60–1.21] 0.367   
 5th (least perm.) 3249 2.4 1.00    
Population density
 Low (rural) 9729 4.3 1.17 [0.50–2.77] 0.717 1.18 [0.43–3.22] 0.745
 Medium 4577 2.2 1.03 [0.41–2.62] 0.948 1.03 [0.38–2.77] 0.961
 High (urban) 1170 2.7 1.00   1.00  
Transmission pattern
 East 3451 4.6 7.28 [2.13–24.85] 0.002 11.29 [3.84–33.20] <0.001
 West 6654 4.7 7.16 [2.28–22.56] <0.001 9.32 [3.49–24.93] <0.001
 South 957 3.0 4.49 [0.82–24.49] 0.083 4.20 [0.73–24.27] 0.109
 Highlands 1984 1.5 2.23 [0.65–7.63] 0.203 0.98 [0.18–5.39] 0.985
 Fringe 2430 0.7 1.00   1.00