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Table 2 Association between RDT positivity and MCI in bi- and multivariate analyses

From: Post-deployment effectiveness of malaria control interventions on Plasmodium infections in Madagascar: a comprehensive phase IV assessment

MCI Area Variable Category N % RDT+ Bivariate Multivariate
Crude OR [95 % CI] p Adj.* OR [95 % CI] p
LLIN All targeted zones except the south Nightly bed net use LLIN 6780 3.7 0.55 [0.45–0.67] <0.001 0.59 [0.46–0.77] <0.001
NIBN 1364 3.7 0.72 [0.53–0.98] 0.037 0.76 [0.55–1.05] 0.090
None 4391 4.4 1.00   1.00  
LLIN coverage ≤75 % 11,327 3.7 1.00   1.00  
>75 % 1208 6.2 1.78 [0.50–6.34] 0.371 1.82 [0.51–6.49] 0.358
IRS Southern transmission pattern IRS the previous year No 303 4.3 1.00   1.00  
Yes 654 2.4 0.56 [0.35–0.87] 0.010 0.56 [0.35–0.89] 0.014
IRS coverage ≤75 % 708 3.7 1.00   1.00  
>75 % 249 1.2 0.33 [0.08–1.42] 0.136 0.14 [0.03–0.61] 0.008
All targeted zones except the south IRS the previous year No 1736 1.1 1.00   1.00  
Yes 3460 1.4 1.13 [0.74–1.72] 0.564 1.11 [0.69–1.78] 0.669
IRS coverage ≤75 % 3662 1.6 1.00   1.00  
>75 % 1534 0.6 0.36 [0.12–1.12] 0.077 0.20 [0.07–0.56] 0.002
LLIN and IRS All targeted zones except the south Nightly bed net use and/or IRS coverage LLIN use and IRS coverage >75 % 427 0.5 0.22 [0.04–1.23] 0.085 0.14 [0.03–0.61] 0.009
No LLIN use and IRS coverage >75 % 596 0.5 0.42 [0.10–1.82] 0.248 0.24 [0.07–0.83] 0.024
LLIN use and IRS coverage ≤75 % 1104 1.3 0.78 [0.44–1.37] 0.385 0.93 [0.58–1.49] 0.764
NIBN use and IRS coverage ≤75 % 160 1.9 0.96 [0.08–11.71] 0.974 0.98 [0.09–10.67] 0.985
No bed net use and IRS coverage ≤75 % 1650 1.4 1.00   1.00  
IPTp All targeted zones ≥1 dose IPTp Yes 103 1.9 0.48 [0.09–2.42] 0.370 0.34 [0.05–2.10] 0.244
No 104 3.8 1.00   1.00  
IEC Fringe and east Exposure to malaria IEC Low 2682 4.0 1.00   1.00  
High 1779 2.6 0.70 [0.50–0.99] 0.042 0.79 [0.55–1.16] 0.230
Very high 1413 1.7 0.65 [0.42–1.00] 0.050 0.76 [0.43–1.34] 0.345
Whole country except the fringe and east Exposure to malaria IEC Low 4623 3.8 1.00   1.00  
High 2497 4.0 1.08 [0.85–1.36] 0.543 1.08 [0.84–1.38] 0.544
Very high 2432 3.5 0.98 [0.67–1.44] 0.916 1.09 [0.71–1.68] 0.695
  1. * OR adjusted for age, gender, education, SES quintile, population density, and transmission pattern