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Table 1 Study definitions

From: Integrated community case management and community-based health planning and services: a cross sectional study on the effectiveness of the national implementation for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia

Definitions HBC [16] CHPS [53]
Malaria All fever cases when no laboratory tests are available All fever cases when no laboratory tests are available or when malaria test was positive
General danger signs Vomiting, convulsions, unconscious or not breastfeeding Vomiting, convulsions, unconscious or not breastfeeding
Severe malaria signs Little or no urine, dark coloured urine, marked jaundice or abnormal bleeding Little or no urine, dark coloured urine, marked jaundice or abnormal bleeding
Appropriate treatment of malaria Children aged 6 months to 5 years diagnosed with malaria receiving 3 days of ACT If more than 7 days with fever, general danger signs or severe malaria signs, child must be referred with rectal artesunate Children aged 2 months to 5 years diagnosed with malaria receiving 3 days of ACT If more than 7 days with fever, general danger signs or severe malaria signs, child must be referred with IM quinine, IM or EV or rectal artesunate plus an IM dose of chloramphenicol
Prompt treatment of malaria Malaria cases that received an antimalarial drug in within the first 24 h of the onset of symptoms Malaria cases that received an antimalarial drug in within the first 24 h of the onset of symptoms
Diarrhoea Three or more loose or watery stools in a 24-h period Three or more loose or watery stools in a 24-h period
Appropriate treatment of diarrhoea Children older than 6 months with diarrhoea of less than 7 days that receive ORS and zinc for 14 days If the child is less than 6 months, had diarrhoea for 7 days or more, blood in stools or is dehydrated, he/she should be referred with ORS Children with diarrhoea of less than 14 days receiving ORS and zinc for 14 days If diarrhoea for 14 days or more, blood in stools or is severely dehydrated, he/she should be referred to hospital with ORS
ARI or suspected pneumonia Cough with fast or difficult breathinga Cough with fast or difficult breathingb
Severe pneumonia Noisy breathing or chest in-drawing Noisy breathing or chest in-drawing
Appropriate treatment for suspected pneumonia Children older than 6 months with cough and fast or difficult breathing of less than 7 days receiving amoxicillin for 5 days If the child is less than 6 months or had symptoms for 7 days or more, he/she should be referred If there are signs of severe pneumonia, he/she should be referred with amoxicillin Children older than 2 months with cough and fast or difficult breathing of less than 14 days receiving amoxicillin or cotrimoxazole for 5 days If the child is less than 2 month or had symptoms for 14 days or more, he/she should be referred If there are signs of severe pneumonia, he/she should be referred with IM chloramphenicol
  1. aARI timers are available in the Northern Region under the iCCM strategy to help diagnose suspected pneumonia. If severe pneumonia is suspected, the child must be referred to a CHPS compound or a Health Centre
  2. bNurses at CHPS compounds do not have ARI timers. The diagnosis is made based on clinical signs. If a severe pneumonia case is suspected, the children must be referred to a higher level of health facility. Some district hospitals, all regional hospitals and teaching hospitals have X-Rays to help diagnose pneumonia. Health centres, district hospitals, regional hospitals and teaching hospitals have laboratory facilities to help diagnose malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia