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Table 2 Results from the final spatial models (Model 4) of baseline infection status among 1943 Ghanaian children (2010)

From: Geo-spatial factors associated with infection risk among young children in rural Ghana: a secondary spatial analysis

Covariates Odds ratios (95 % CrI) Range parameter in km (95 % CrI) Standard deviations of random effects (95 % CrI)
Spatial Compound
(1) Inflammation and/or parasitaemia
 Intercept 0.504 (0.298, 0.874) 4.559 (1.943, 8.945) 0.506 (0.310, 0.856) 0.007 (0.004, 0.028)
 Age per month (months)
  6–23 1.032 (1.011, 1.054)
  24–35 0.963 (0.927, 0.999)
 Sex (male reference) 1.104 (0.902, 1.351)
 Length-for-age z-score 0.915 (0.836, 1.001)
 Weight-for-length z-score 0.886 (0.795, 0.987)
 Asset score 1.041 (0.931, 1.164)
 Distance to health facility (km) 1.107 (1.008, 1.218)
 Elevation (m) 0.993 (0.987, 0.998)
 Baseline iron status 1.150 (1.070, 1.241)
(2) Inflammation without parasitaemia
 Intercept 0.168 (0.095, 0.301) 7.120 (2.691, 15.54) 0.447 (0.231, 0.871) 0.007 (0.004, 0.028)
 Age per month (months)
  6–23 0.995 (0.969, 1.022)
  24–35 0.967 (0.916, 1.018)
 Sex (male reference) 1.163 (0.889, 1.521)
 Length-for-age z-score 1.007(0.893, 1.135)
 Weight-for-length z-score 0.909 (0.789, 1.046)
 Asset score 0.989 (0.859, 1.139)
 Distance to health facility (km) 0.916 (0.825, 1.006)
 Elevation (m) 0.999 (0.993, 1.004)
 Baseline iron status 1.047 (0.947, 1.145)
(3) Parasitaemia with fever
 Intercept 0.037 (0.014, 0.088) 7.548 (3.080, 14.61) 0.823 (0.452, 1.522) 0.007 (0.028, 0.004)
 Age per month (months)
  6–23 1.040 (1.002, 1.081)
  24–35 0.924 (0.856, 0.992)
 Sex (male reference) 1.179 (0.812, 1.716)
 Length-for-age z-score 0.944 (0.796, 1.116)
 Weight-for-length z-score 0.812 (0.659, 0.997)
 Asset score 1.058 (0.849, 1.316)
 Distance to health facility (km) 1.162 (0.993, 1.365)
 Elevation (m) 0.991 (0.981, 0.999)
 Baseline iron status 1.213 (1.098, 1.330)
(4) All parasitaemia
 Intercept 0.217 (0.110, 0.425) 3.374 (1.552, 6.818) 0.684 (0.433, 1.071) 0.007 (0.004, 0.028)
 Age per month (months)
  6–23 1.054 (1.027, 1.081)
  24–35 0.973 (0.932, 1.016)
 Sex (male reference) 1.015 (0.797, 1.293)
 Length-for-age z-score 0.876 (0.785, 0.977)
 Weight-for-length z-score 0.898 (0.787, 1.024)
 Asset score 1.069 (0.927, 1.232)
 Distance to health facility (km) 1.200 (1.066, 1.360)
 Elevation (m) 0.992 (0.985, 1.000)
 Baseline iron status 1.149 (1.064, 1.241)
  1. Infection status definitions
  2. 1) Inflammation and/or parasitaemia (binary): 1 = CRP > 5 mg/L and/or any malaria parasitaemia, 0 = CRP ≤ 5 mg/L and absence of parasitaemia
  3. 2) Inflammation without parasitaemia (binary): 1 = CRP > 5 mg/L without malaria parasitaemia, 0 = CRP ≤ 5 mg/L without parasitaemia
  4. 3) Parasitaemia with fever (binary): 1 = any malaria parasitaemia with concurrent fever (axillary temperature > 37.5 °C) or history of reported fever (within 48 h), 0 = any malaria parasitaemia without concurrent fever or history of reported fever
  5. 4) All parasitaemia (binary): 1 = any malaria parasitaemia with/without fever, 0 = absence of parasitaemia with/without fever
  6. Model prior shape = 1.117, model prior rate = 0.157
  7. Baseline iron status = iron status at baseline, defined as serum ferritin concentration (µg/dL) corrected for CRP using the regression method and re-scaled by multiplying each corrected value by the inverse of the inter-quartile range
  8. CrI credible interval