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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analyses of potential risk factors associated with malaria among the Nigerian participants (n = 551)

From: Is Nigeria winning the battle against malaria? Prevalence, risk factors and KAP assessment among Hausa communities in Kano State

Variables Malaria P
No. examined % infected OR (95 % CI)
Age groups
 ≥18 353 61.5 2.13 (1.24, 3.66) 0.006*, †
 12–17 135 66.7 2.67 (1.44, 4.93) 0.002*, †
 <12 years 63 42.9 1  
Gender
 Male 340 61.2 1.06 (0.75, 1.51) 0.733
 Female 211 59.7 1  
Educational status
 Not educated 88 54.5 0.76 (0.46, 1.27) 0.289
 Primary education 272 62.1 1.04 (0.71, 1.52) 0.849
 Secondary/tertiary education 191 61.3 1  
Occupation
 Working 270 62.6 1.18 (0.84, 1.66) 0.352
 Not working 281 58.7 1  
Household monthly income
 <NGN 32,000 (low) 231 67.1 1.61 (1.13, 2.29) 0.008*, †
 ≥NGN 32,000 320 55.9 1  
Family size
 >10 members 284 60.9 1.01 (0.85, 1.21) 0.882
 ≤10 members 267 60.3 1  
Type of houses
 Mud 430 60.5 0.97 (0.64, 1.47) 0.891
 Concrete 121 61.2 1  
Type of toilet
 Pit (ground dug) 481 61.7 1.44 (0.87, 2.38) 0.155
 Pour flush system 70 52.9 1  
Having ITNs
 No 113 61.1 1.01 (0.92, 1.10) 0.914
 Yes 438 60.5 1  
Using ITNs
 No 278 66.5 1.66 (1.17, 2.34) 0.004*, †
 Yes 273 54.6 1  
Using insecticide
 No 348 61.5 1.07 (0.85, 1.33) 0.581
 Yes 203 59.1 1  
Have domestic animals
 Yes 228 57.9 0.82 (0.58, 1.16) 0.272
 No 323 62.5 1  
Living near water sources (stream, dam, lake, pond, etc.)
 Yes (<250 m) 380 60.0 0.92 (0.64, 1.33) 0.659
 No 171 62.0 1  
Recent history of infection
 Yes 183 59.0 0.97 (0.86, 1.09) 0.588
 No 368 61.4 1  
  1. NGN Nigerian Naira; (US$1 = NGN 165); OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval
  2. * Significant association (p < 0.05)
  3.  Confirmed as significant risk factors by multiple logistic regression analysis