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Table 6 Association of participants’ knowledge about malaria with their educational status and monthly income

From: Is Nigeria winning the battle against malaria? Prevalence, risk factors and KAP assessment among Hausa communities in Kano State

Variables Educational status Household monthly income
Not educated Educated OR 95 % CI <GN 32,000 ≥NGN 32,000 OR 95 % CI
Heard about malaria 65 (91.5) 418 (96.3) 2.41 0.91, 6.39 206 (94.9) 277 (96.2) 1.35 0.57, 3.16
Causes
 Mosquito bites 33 (50.8) 341 (81.6) 4.30 2.49, 7.41* 171 (83.0) 203 (73.3) 0.56 0.36, 0.88*
 Stagnant water 3 (4.6) 19 (4.5) 0.98 0.28, 3.42 10 (4.9) 12 (4.3) 0.89 0.38, 2.10
 Poor personal hygiene 45 (10.8) 2 (3.1) 3.80 0.90, 16.06 22 (10.7) 25 (9.0) 0.83 0.45, 1.52
 Do not know 27 (41.5) 74 (17.7) 0.31 0.17, 0.53* 32 (15.5) 69 (24.9) 1.81 1.13, 2.87*
Signs and symptoms
 Fever 43 (66.2) 333 (79.7) 2.01 1.14, 3.53* 161 (78.2) 215 (77.6) 0.97 0.63, 1.50
 Headache 9 (13.8) 43 (10.3) 0.73 0.48, 1.33 17 (8.3) 38 (13.7) 1.86 0.89, 2.43
 Weakness 32 (49.2) 201 (48.1) 0.96 0.57, 1.61 95 (46.1) 138 (49.8) 1.16 0.81, 1.67
 Vomiting 6 (9.2) 98 (23.4) 3.01 1.26, 7.19* 32 (15.5) 72 (26.0) 1.91 1.20, 3.03*
 Abdominal pain 5 (7.7) 22 (5.3) 0.74 0.62, 1.25 19 (9.2) 31 (11.2) 1.14 0.73, 1.21
 Do not know 12 (18.5) 50 (12.0) 0.60 0.30, 1.20 28 (13.6) 34 (12.3) 0.89 0.52, 1.52
Prevention
 Using bed nets/insecticide 30 (46.2) 306 (73.2) 3.19 1.87, 5.44* 150 (72.8) 186 (67.1) 0.76 0.51, 1.13
 Improving personal hygiene 8 (12.3) 95 (22.7) 2.10 0.97, 4.55 46 (22.3) 57 (20.6) 0.90 0.58, 1.40
 Medication 2 (3.1) 32 (7.7) 2.61 0.61, 11.17 17 (8.3) 17 (6.1) 0.73 0.36, 1.46
 Do not know 3 (4.6) 46 (11.0) 2.56 0.77, 8.47 24 (11.7) 25 (9.0) 0.75 0.42, 1.36
  1. All values are number (%)
  2. OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval
  3. * Significant association (p < 0.05)