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Table 3 Univariate and multivariable analysis of risk factors associated with malaria in individuals aged >5 years in Kinshasa, stratified by malaria transmission zone, 2011

From: Identifying risk factors for Plasmodium infection and anaemia in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

  Ngiri Ngiri: 0.8 % prevalence   Selembao: 26.8 % prevalence Interaction by transmission zone
Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Variable n (%) OR 95 % CI p value OR 95 % CI p value n (%) OR 95 % CI p value OR 95 % CI p value p value
Sex
Male 142 5.6 1.0    1.0    143 28.7 1.0    1.0    
Female 257 4.3 0.75 0.29–1.91 0.548 0.74 0.23–2.37 0.616 274 20.1 0.62 0.39–1.00 0.050 0.66 0.40–1.08 0.102 0.733
Age
5–9 years 62 4.8 1.0    1.0    76 34.2 1.0    1.0    
10–14 years 68 1.5 0.29 0.03–2.90   0.22 0.01–3.39   68 25.0 0.64 0.31–1.32   0.79 0.37–1.72   
15–19 years 48 14.6 3.36 0.82–13.75   7.11 1.17–43.05   46 28.3 0.76 0.34–1.68   0.85 0.37–1.96   
>20 221 3.6 0.74 0.19–2.87 0.022 1.09 0.21–5.72 0.009 227 17.6 0.41 0.23–0.74 0.021 0.45 0.24–0.83 0.042 0.105
Reported treated bed net use
No 244 6.1 1.0    1.0    315 25.7 1.0    1.0    
Yes 155 2.6 0.40 0.13–1.24 0.089 0.33 0.09–1.21 0.075 102 14.7 0.50 0.27–0.91 0.017 0.57 0.30–1.09 0.078 0.746
Fever in the last two weeks
No 366 2.2 1.0    1.0    361 21.6 1.0    1.0    
Yes 33 33.3 22.38 8.17–61.27 <0.001 38.71 11.08–135.23 < 0.001 54 33.3 1.81 0.98–3.37 0.066 2.05 1.07–3.95 0.036 <0.001
Education of the respondent
No education 8 12.5 1.0    1.0    35 34.3 1.0    1.0    
Primary 120 5.0 0.37 0.04–3.50   0.18 0.01–2.49   186 26.9 0.70 0.33–1.52   0.82 0.36–1.87   
Secondary 189 4.8 0.35 0.04–3.16   0.27 0.02–3.48   145 18.6 0.44 0.19–0.99   0.49 0.20–1.19   
Superior and above 82 3.7 0.27 0.02–2.91 0.802 0.17 0.01–2.87 0.647 51 13.7 0.30 0.11–0.88 0.041 0.32 0.09–1.13 0.115 0.865
Occupation of the respondent
Without occupation 244 5.7 1.0    1.0    200 26.0 1.0    1.0    
Manual labourer 37 2.7 0.46 0.06–3.58   0.82 0.09–7.91   64 23.4 0.87 0.45–1.68   1.17 0.58–2.37   
Self employed 27 3.7 0.63 0.08–5.00   1.33 0.13–13.64   56 16.1 0.55 0.25–1.19 0.398 0.56 0.24–1.28 0.425  
Employed 91 3.3 0.56 0.16–2.00 0.696 0.59 0.11–3.20 0.913 97 20.6 0.74 0.41–1.33   1.12 0.56–2.23   0.911
Wealth tertile
Poorest and middlea 162 4.9 1.0    1.0    201 25.4 1.0    1.0    
Wealthiest 237 4.6 0.94 0.37–2.38 0.891 1.31 0.18–9.64 0.618 99 19.2 0.74 0.42–1.30 0.293 0.91 0.48–1.73 0.779 0.676
  1. aCombined due to low number of observations