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Table 1 Association of CD4 count (at infection) with malaria in the placebo arm

From: Longitudinal effect of CD4 by cotrimoxazole use on malaria incidence among HIV-infected Ugandan adults on antiretroviral therapy: a randomized controlled study

  Clinical malaria
Median value Rate/100 person years (95 % CI)a Crude rate ratio (95 % CI)a Adjusted rate ratio (95 % CI)a,b Adjusted rate ratio (95 % CI)a,c
CD4 count at infectiond    P = 0.60 P = 0.81 P = 0.56
 <300 262 14.6 (11.2–19.0) 1 1 1
 300–399 355 13.4 (11.0–16.3) 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
 400–499 448 13.1 (11.1–15.5) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
 500–599 547 13.5 (11.5–15.9) 0.9 (0.7–1.3) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 0.9 (0.6–1.4)
 600–699 644 14.2 (11.7–17.1) 1.0 (0.7–1.4) 0.9 (0.6–1.5) 1.0 (0.6–1.6)
 ≥700 836 15.5 (12.7–19.0) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 1.2 (0.7–1.9)
Baseline factors
 Site    P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P = 0.002
  Entebbe   10.6 (8.8–12.8) 1 1 1
  Masaka   17.2 (14.9–19.9) 1.6 (1.3–2.1) 1.5 (1.2–1.9) 1.5 (1.1–1.9)
 Age (years)d    P = 0.07 P = 0.04 P = 0.04
  <35 31 12.4 (10.0–15.2) 1 1 1
  35–44 39 15.1 (12.8–17.9) 1.2 (1.0–1.5) 1.2 (1.0–1.5) 1.2 (1.0–1.5)
  ≥45 50 14.0 (11.5–17.1) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 1.1 (0.8–1.5)
 Sex    P = 0.83 P = 0.46 P = 0.63
  Male   14.4 (11.4–18.1) 1 1 1
  Female   13.9 (12.2–16.0) 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
 SES    P < 0.001 P = 0.002 P = 0.003
  Low   16.1 (13.6–19.0) 1.8 (1.3–2.4) 1.7 (1.3–2.4) 1.7 (1.2–2.3)
  Middle   15.7 (12.8–19.1) 1.7 (1.2–2.4) 1.6 (1.1–2.2) 1.6 (1.1–2.2)
  High   9.0 (6.9–11.8) 1 1 1
 Baseline CD4 countd   P = 0.63 P = 0.88 P = 0.98
  <350 310 13.3 (10.4–16.9) 1 1 1
  350–499 422 13.1 (10.7–16.1) 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 1.0 (0.7–1.4)
  ≥500 634 14.7 (12.1–18.0) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.0 (0.8–1.4) 1.0 (0.6–1.5)
Factors during follow-up
 Time since enrolment (years)   P < 0.001   P < 0.001
  <1   17.3 (14.8–20.1) 1.9 (1.4–2.6)   1.9 (1.4–2.7)
  1–2   13.1 (10.8–15.7) 1.4 (1.0–2.0)   1.5 (1.0–2.1)
  ≥2   9.0 (6.7–12.1) 1   1
 BMI (kg/m2)    P = 0.01   P = 0.02
  <18.5   10.0 (6.9–14.4) 0.6 (0.4–0.9)   0.6 (0.4–0.9)
  18–24.9   15.8 (13.8–18.1) 1   1
  ≥25   11.6 (8.9–15.0) 0.7 (0.5–1.0)   0.8 (0.6–1.0)
 Bed net use    P = 0.05   P = 0.14
  ≥90 % of visits   13.2 (11.6–15.1) 1   1
  <90 % of visits   17.5 (13.7–22.3) 1.3 (1.0–1.7)   1.2 (0.9–1.6)
  1. aRates and rate ratios estimated from random effects Poisson regression
  2. bAdjusted for enrolment site, age at enrolment, sex, SES and baseline CD4 count
  3. cAdjusted for all covariates in footnote b, and time since enrolment, current BMI and bednet use
  4. dContinuous covariates (CD4 count and age) were modelled by restricted cubic splines with 4 knots. Rates are estimated at the median value in each range; the median value in the lowest range is used as the reference to estimate the rate ratios. P value is for overall association with covariate from likelihood ratio test