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Table 1 Summary of data included in the analysis

From: Diagnosis and treatment based on quantitative PCR after controlled human malaria infection

  Year Number of volunteers CPS-immunization Patent parasitemia Pre-patent perioda References
Median Range
Study 1 2007 10 3 × 12–15 mosquitoes 0/10 Roestenberg et al. [13]
5 5/5 9 7–10.5
Study 2b 2007 18 18/18 10.5 9–12.5  
Study 3 2009 6 3 × 12–15 mosquitoesc 2/6 16.8 15–18.6 Roestenberg et al. [14]
4 4/4 8.5 7.5–10.5
Study 4 2010 5 4/5 10.6 10.6–11 Teirlinck et al. [15]
Study 5 2011 5 3 × 15 mosquitoes 1/5 12 Bijker et al. [12]
9 3 × 10 mosquitoes 1/9 12
10 3 × 5 mosquitoes 5/10 11 9–15
5 5/5 9.5 9–13.5
Study 6 2011 5 3 × 15 mosquitoes 0/5 Bijker et al. [10]
5 5/5 12.5 9.5–12.5
Study 7 2012 15 3 × 8 mosquitoes 5/15 12 11–14 Bijker et al. [11]
4 4/4 8.5 7–12
Study 8 2012 5 5/5 10.5 9–10.5  
Study 9 2012 5 5/5 12 10.5–16 Bastiaens et al. [9]
  1. Data was included from all malaria naïve or CPS-immunized volunteers undergoing challenge infection with bites from five mosquitoes infected NF54 since 2007
  2. aOnly volunteers with patent parasitemia included. In all studies pre-patent period is defined as time to positive thick blood smear
  3. bVolunteers received three immunization with a candidate malaria vaccine but were unprotected from challenge infection
  4. cRechallenge of CPS-immunized volunteers from Study 1, 2.5 years after immunization and malaria naive controls