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Table 1 Distribution of household characteristics, and control and management strategies of malaria in Bura (N = 114) and Ijara (N = 220)

From: A comparison of malaria prevalence, control and management strategies in irrigated and non-irrigated areas in eastern Kenya

Variable Levels Bura irrigation Ijara pastoral Proportion test
n % n % p value*
Respondent’s sex Male 62 54.4 140 63.6 0.10
Female 52 45.6 80 36.4 0.10
Occupation of household head Farmer 91 79.8 0 0.0 0.00
Pastoralist 31 27.2 193 87.7 0.00
Small business 4 3.5 9 4.1 0.80
Casual labour 2 1.8 3 1.4 0.78
Animal kept within compound Yes 108 94.7 202 91.8 0.33
No 6 5.3 18 8.2 0.33
Main floor material Earth 108 94.7 198 90.0 0.14
Cement 6 5.3 13 5.91 0.81
Main roof material Iron sheets 72 63.2 17 7.73 0.00
Grass 30 26.3 179 81.4 0.00
Others such as nylon papers, clothes, no roof 12 10.5 24 10.9 0.91
Main wall material Mud and wood 61 53.5 4 1.8 0.00
Grass 22 19.3 148 67.3 0.00
Stone with cement 9 7.9 7 3.2 0.06
Cane/trunks 4 3.5 35 15.9 0.00
Others like bricks, stone with mud and wood planks/shingles 8 7.0 26 11.8 0.17
Main water source Water canals 80 70.2 0 0.0 0.00
Dams 27 23.7 127 57.7 0.00
Protected well 3 2.6 15 6.8 0.11
Water tankers 3 2.6 0 0.0 0.02
Water pans 0 0.0 44 20.0 0.00
Heard of malaria Yes 114 100.0 217 98.6 0.21
No 0 0.0 3 1.4 0.21
Cause of malaria Mosquito bites 109 95.6 215 97.7 0.28
Dirty home surroundings 11 9.7 29 13.2 0.35
Stagnant water 7 6.1 79 35.9 0.00
Taking dirty water 11 9.7 28 12.7 0.42
Others such as dam water, long rains, eating raw food and cold/wet weather 14 12.3 51 23.2 0.02
Malaria transmission Infectious mosquito bites 35 30.7 9 4.1 0.00
Contact with sick person 4 3.5 0 0.0 0.01
Others like taking contaminated water 2 1.8 3 1.4 0.78
Not transmitted 73 64.0 208 94.6 0.00
Malaria symptoms Fever 100 87.7 213 96.8 0.00
Headache 86 75.4 139 63.2 0.02
Muscle and joint pain 57 50.0 84 38.2 0.04
Chills/shivering 53 46.5 163 74.1 0.00
Vomiting 51 44.7 108 49.1 0.45
Body weakness/fatigue 46 40.4 87 39.6 0.89
Loss of appetite 38 33.3 109 49.6 0.00
Access to a health facility Yes 110 96.5 200 90.9 0.06
No 4 3.5 20 9.1 0.06
Distance to the nearest health facility ≤5 km 57 50.0 120 54.5 0.43
>5 km 57 50.0 100 45.5 0.43
Action taken within 1 day of malaria symptoms Taken to hospital 22 29.3 30 34.1 0.38
AL self-medication at home 15 20.0 3 3.4 0.00
Paracetamol self-medication 14 18.7 11 12.5 0.13
Nothing 13 17.3 19 21.6 0.36
Drugs taken AL 53 46.5 28 12.7 0.00
Paracetamol 28 24.6 19 8.6 0.00
Quinine 17 14.9 11 5.0 0.00
Fansidar 8 7.0 36 16.4 0.02
Source of health care Government health facility 88 77.2 196 89.1 0.00
Private health facility 22 19.3 3 1.4 0.00
No health care 4 3.5 20 9.1 0.06
Main source of drugs taken at home Pharmacy/chemist 18 69.2 12 46.2 0.00
Ordinary shops 5 19.2 11 42.3 0.00
Malaria prevention/control Use of mosquito nets 108 94.7 158 71.8 0.00
Clearing of bushes and vegetation around houses and canals 18 15.8 51 23.2 0.11
Draining/leveling of breeding sites around house 16 14.0 43 19.6 0.21
Indoor residual spraying 6 5.3 4 1.8 0.08
Taking drugs 5 4.4 139 63.2 0.00
Lighting fires and mosquito coils 4 3.5 18 8.2 0.10
All members used mosquito net last night Yes 99 86.8 39 17.7 0.00
No 15 13.2 181 82.3 0.00
Sources of mosquito nets Government health centre 75 65.8 31 14.1 0.00
Government campaigns 27 23.7 8 3.6 0.00
Non-governmental organizations 15 15.8 7 3.2 0.00
Retail shops 9 7.9 67 30.5 0.00
Chemists 3 3.6 0 0.0 0.00
Private clinics 2 2.4 5 2.4 0.99
Indoor residual sprays in the last 12 months Yes 33 29.0 1 0.5 0.00
No 81 71.0 219 99.5 0.00
  1. AL artemether–lumefantrine
  2. * Two sample test of proportions