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Table 1 Plasmodium chabaudi-infected IL-10−/− mice show impaired performance in the SHIRPA assessment

From: Behavioural and neurological symptoms accompanied by cellular neuroinflammation in IL-10-deficient mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi

  Day 10 IL-10−/− vs. C57BL/6J
C57BL/6J <120 h <96 h <72 h <48 h <24 h
n = 16 n = 4 p n = 6 P n = 5 p n = 5 p n = 8 p
Weight 17.8 (1.6) 18.2 (2.7) NS 17.4 (1.9) NS 16.8 (3.1) NS 16.4 (2.3) NS 14.7 (1.9) <0.001*
Reflex/sensory function
 Visual placing 4 (4/4) 3.5 (3/4) NS 3 (3/4) 0.015* 3 (3/4) 0.039* 3 (3/3.5) 0.005* 3 (3/4) 0.006*
 Pinna reflex 1 (1/1) 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS
 Corneal reflex 1 (1/1) 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS
 Toe pinch 4 (4/4) 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS
 Righting reflex 3 (3/3) 3 (3/3) NS 3 (3/3) NS 3 (3/3) NS 3 (2.5/3) NS 3 (1/3) 0.018*
 Cont. right. reflex 1 (1/1) 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS
Neuropsychiatric state
 Spont. activity 2 (2/2) 2 (2/2) NS 2 (2/2) NS 2 (1/2) 0.012* 1 (1/2) 0.001* 1 (1/1.5) <0.001*
 Transfer arousal 5 (5/5) 5 (4.25/5) NS 5 (4/5) NS 5 (4.5/5) NS 3 (2.5/5) 0.017* 2 (2/4.5) <0.001*
 Touch escape 2 (2/2) 2 (2/2) NS 2 (2/2) NS 2 (1.5/2) NS 2 (2/2) NS 2 (1/2) 0.005*
 Posit. passivity 4 (4/4) 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS
 Provoked biting 0 (0/0) 0 (0/0) NS 0 (0/0) NS 0 (0/0) NS 0 (0/0.5) NS 1 (0/1) 0.001*
 Fear 1 (1/1) 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 0 (0/1) 0.001* 0 (0/1) <0.001*
 Irritability 1 (1/1) 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (0.5/1) NS
 Aggression 1 (1/1) 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS
 Vocalization 1 (1/1) 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (0/1) NS 0 (0/0.5) 0.002*
Motor behavior
 Body position 4 (3/4) 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS 3 (3/3.5) NS 3 (3/3.5) NS 3 (3/3.5) 0.043*
 Tremor 2 (2/2) 2 (2/2) NS 2 (2/2) NS 2 (2/2) NS 2 (1/2) 0.012* 2 (1/2) 0.005*
 Locom. activity 6.2 (4.9) 8.8 (5.4) NS 14.3 (8.2) 0.009* 8.6 (4.8) NS 4.2 (2.8) NS 3.7 (1.9) NS
 Pelvic elevation 2 (2/2) 2 (2/2) NS 2 (2/2) NS 2 (2/2) NS 2 (2/2) NS 2 (1.5/2) NS
 Gait 3 (3/3) 3 (3/3) NS 3 (3/3) NS 3 (3/3) NS 3 (2/3) 0.012* 3 (1.5/3) 0.005*
 Tail elevation 1 (1/1) 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (0/1) 0.018*
 Trunk curl 1 (1/1) 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS
 Limb grasping 1 (1/1) 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS
 Wire maneuver 4 (4/4) 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS 4 (2/4) 0.018*
 Negative geotaxis 4 (4/4) 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS 4 (4/4) NS 4 (0/4) 0.018*
Autonomous function
 Resp. rate 3 (2/3) 2 (2/2) 0.034* 2 (2/2) 0.012* 3 (2/3) NS 2 (2/3) NS 2 (2/3) NS
 Feces 1.3 (1.6) 2.0 (0.8) NS 1.0 (1.5) NS 0.2 (0.4) NS 0.4 (0.5) NS 0.4 (1.0) NS
 Urine 0 (0/0) 0 (0/0) NS 0 (0/0) NS 0 (0/0) NS 0 (0/0) NS 0 (0/0) NS
 Palpebral closure 2 (2/2) 2 (2/2) NS 2 (2/2) NS 2 (1.5/2) NS 2 (1/2) 0.012* 2 (1/2) 0.005*
 Piloerection 0 (0/0.75) 1 (1/1) 0.009* 1 (1/1) 0.002* 1 (0/1) NS 0 (0/1) NS 0 (0/1) NS
 Skin color 1 (1/1) 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (0/1) NS
 Heart rate 2 (1.25/2) 1 (1/1) 0.009* 1 (1/1) 0.002* 1 (1/2) NS 1 (1/1.5) 0.035* 1 (1/1) 0.002*
 Lacrimation 1 (1/1) 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (0.5/1) NS 1 (0/1) 0.012* 1 (0/1) 0.005*
 Salivation 1 (0/2) 0 (0/0.75) NS 0.5 (0/1) NS 1 (0/2) NS 1 (0/2) NS 2 (2/2) 0.015*
 Temperature 36.4 (0.9) 38.5 (0.2) 0.019* 38.7 (0.3) 0.011* 37.9 (0.3) 0.031* 35.5 (3.1) NS 33.4 (2.9) 0.021*
Muscle tone and strength
 Grip strength 3 (3/3) 3 (3/3) NS 3 (3/3) NS 3 (3/3) NS 3 (2.5/3) NS 2 (1.5/3) <0.001*
 Body tone 1 (1/1) 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (0.5/1) NS
 Limb tone 2 (2/2) 2 (2/2.75) NS 2 (2/3) NS 2 (2/3) NS 2 (2/3) NS 2 (2/2) NS
 Abdominal tone 1 (1/1) 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS 1 (1/1) NS
  1. Compiled from two independent experiments, female IL-10−/− mice (n = 11) and C57Bl/6 J mice (n = 16) were inoculated with 105 Pcc-iRBCs i.p. and followed for 10–14 days during the acute phase of infection in which the SHIRPA comprehensive behavioral assessment was performed daily. SHIRPA data was pooled from infected IL-10−/− mice exhibiting fatal symptoms early during the acute phase of infection (<12 days post-inoculation) and synchronized to the time of death of the individual mouse. Synchronized IL-10−/− SHIRPA scores were compared to the peak of infection for C57Bl/6J control animals (day 10 post-inoculation). Data shown are median (lower/upper quartile) or mean (± SD) where appropriate. Statistical significance determined by Rank Sum Test or Student’s t test (p < 0.05). Significant values are starred and displayed in italic font