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Table 2 Characteristics of participants in the clinic-based survey of children with fever presenting for care

From: Burden of malaria is higher among children in an internal displacement camp compared to a neighbouring village in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

  IDPs (Bilobilo) n = 100 Village controls (Mubi) n = 100 P value
Agea (years): median (range) 2.6 (1–5) 3 (1–5) 0.49
Female sexa: n (%) 47 (47 %) 53 (53 %) 0.48
Bed nets: n (%)
Household ownership 21 (21 %) 75 (75 %) <0.001
Bed net usea (index case) 16 (16 %) 65 (66 %) <0.001
Maternal education: n (%)
No formal education 1 (1 %) 0 1.00
Primary 29 (29 %) 13 (13 %) 0.009
Secondary 50 (50 %) 42 (42 %) 0.32
University 20 (20 %) 45 (45 %) <0.001
House construction: n (%)
Electricity 0 0
Brick 0 4 (4 %) 0.12
Household assets: n (%)
Bicycle 45 (45 %) 75 (75 %) <0.001
Motor vehicle 1 (1 %) 1 (1 %) 1.00
Radio 21 (21 %) 55 (55 %) <0.001
Telephone 11 (11 %) 41 (41 %) <0.001
Television 1 (1 %) 2 (2 %) 1.00
Refrigerator 0 0
Chicken 60 (60 %) 59 (60 %) 1.00
Cow 12 (12 %) 20 (20 %) 0.13
Goat 38 (38 %) 39 (39 %) 0.88
Wealth quintile b : n (%) <0.001
Poorest 29 (29 %) 11 (11 %)
Second 28 (28 %) 12 (12 %)
Middle 20 (20 %) 20 (20 %)
Fourth 16 (16 %) 24 (24 %)
Richest 7 (7 %) 33 (33 %)
Exposure to community violence: n (%)
Theft 59 (59 %) 12 (12 %) <0.001
Physical assault 15 (15 %) 1 (1 %) <0.001
Sexual assault 22 (22 %) 1 (1 %) <0.001
Knife injury 1 (1 %) 0 1.00
Gunshot 2 (2 %) 0 0.50
P. falciparum infectiona (RDT positive): n (%) 78 (78 %) 39 (39 %) <0.001
  1. aAge, sex, bed net use, and P. falciparum infection refer to the index child; all other measures refer to the family/household
  2. bBased on principal component analysis of household wealth indicators. For two of the eleven indicators (electricity in the house and refrigerator), no participant in the village or camp owned the asset; these indicators did not contribute to the wealth index