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Table 3 Residues of agrochemicals in both anopheles breeding sites’ water and soil sediments in rice cultivation area in Tiassalé, and vegetable area in Dabou, South Côte d’Ivoire

From: Influence of the agrochemicals used for rice and vegetable cultivation on insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in southern Côte d’Ivoire

  Deltaméthrin (pyrethroids) Chorpyriphos ethyl Carbofuran (carbamate) Glyphosate (herbicide) Atrazine (herbicide) Carbendazim (fungicide)
Breeding water Soil sediment Breeding water Soil sediment Breeding water Soil sediment Breeding water Soil sediment Breeding water Soil sediment Breeding water Soil sediment
mg/l mg/kg mg/l mg/kg mg/l mg/kg mg/l mg/kg mg/l mg/kg mg/l mg/kg
Tiassalé 1 0.03 ± 0.002 0.02 ± 0.004 0.09 ± 0.004 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
Tiassalé 2 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 0.03 ± 0.002 2.71 ± 0.04 ND ND
Tiassalé 3 ND ND 0.93 ± 0.03 ND 0.02 ± 0.006 ND ND ND ND ND ND 0.02 ± 0.003
Dabou 1 ND 0.011 ± 0.02 0.17 ± 0.04 ND 0.03 ± 0.002 0.04 ± 0.002 ND ND 0.72 ± 0.02 ND 0.01 ± 0.005 0.04 ± 0.005
Dabou 2 ND ND 0.23 ± 0.05 ND ND ND ND ND ND 2.31 ± 0.004 ND ND
Dabou 3 ND ND 0.15 ± 0.04 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
LOD 0.008 0.007 0.007 0.005 0.006 0.003 0.005 0.012 0.006 0.008 0.005 0.002
LOQ 0.024 0.01 0.021 0.015 0.018 0.009 0.015 0.036 0.018 0.024 0.008 0.011
  1. LOD limit of detection; LOQ limit of quantification; ND not detected