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Fig. 2 | Malaria Journal

Fig. 2

From: Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, in experimental cerebral malaria: implications for the role of oxidative stress in cerebral malaria

Fig. 2

In vivo and ex vivo visualization and quantification of ROS/RNS in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice treated with liraglutide and erythropoietin. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) were visualized and quantified in experimental cerebral malaria. Animals were administered vehicle (white), liraglutide (Lira; black), or Epo (red) from day 4 of P. berghei infection. ROS/RNS probe, L-012, was administered at 75 mg/mL i.p. from day 5 post infection and mice were imaged 15 min post injection for chemiluminescence under isoflurane anesthesia. Animals were imaged [dorsal (a) and supine (b)] daily (photos provided are from day 7). In vivo images were quantified in regions of interest [abdomen (c), thorax (d)] and presented as difference from background. Animals presented in b are representative of day 7 in each treatment group. Animals deemed terminal through humane endpoints described above (i.e. body temperature <32 °C) were injected with L-012. 15 min post-injection, organs were removed, imaged ex vivo for chemiluminescence and reported background-corrected. e Brains emitted no signal above background in all terminal mice regardless of treatment (n = 27) nor in Epo treated mice. f Lung, spleen, adipose, intestine chemiluminescence from infected animals (vehicle n = 19, 19, 18, 19; Lira n = 8, 7, 4, 8; Epo n = 5, 7, 5, 7) and uninfected controls (gray, n = 4). Data was analyzed after log-transformation and presented as bar graphs of median + interquartile range on a log10 y-axis. Significant differences are reported when p values were <*0.05, **0.01, ***0.001

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