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Fig. 3 | Malaria Journal

Fig. 3

From: Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, in experimental cerebral malaria: implications for the role of oxidative stress in cerebral malaria

Fig. 3

Cerebral CREB, cAMP and nitrate/nitrite levels in Plasmodium berghei infection. Animals were administered vehicle (white) or liraglutide (Lira; gray) twice daily from day 4 post infection in C57Bl/6j mice for the experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) model and Balb/c mice for non-cerebral malaria (NCM) model. Healthy C57Bl/6j mice were treated with vehicle or liraglutide from day 4 to 8 of the experimental period. Brains were excised from terminal mice, the cerebrum isolated, split into two hemispheres, and flash frozen. One hemisphere was homogenized with phosphatase inhibition (Healthy: vehicle n = 7, Lira n = 6; ECM: vehicle n = 5, Lira n = 7; NCM: vehicle n = 6, Lira n = 6) and the other in a hydrochloric acid buffer for cAMP (Healthy: vehicle n = 7, Lira n = 7; ECM: vehicle n = 5, Lira n = 7; NCM: vehicle n = 7, Lira n = 7). Homogenates for immunoblotting were separated by SDS-PAGE and probed for CREB, pCREBser133 and normalized to GAPDH. Each antigen is normalized to GAPDH and presented as a pCREB/CREB ratio (a). Cerebral cAMP levels (b) and nitrate, nitrite levels (c, d; Healthy: vehicle n = 7, Lira n = 5; ECM: vehicle n = 4, Lira n = 5; NCM: vehicle n = 5, Lira n = 7) were assayed according to manufacturer’s recommendations. Data is presented as a bar graph with mean + SEM

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