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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of study participants and qPCR results

From: Malaria elimination challenges in Mesoamerica: evidence of submicroscopic malaria reservoirs in Guatemala

Feature Escuintla Alta Verapaz Zacapa Overall
Sex 89/52 288/141 89/4 466/240
Number of females/males χ 2 = 9.709
p = 0.0018
χ 2 = 50.371
p = 1.273 × 10−12
χ 2 = 12.971
p = 0.0003
χ 2 = 72.346
p < 2.2 × 10−16
Age 28 (20) 24 (17) 25 (18) 25 (18)
Mean (SD)
Median (Range)
22 (2–86) 22** (0–99) 21 (3–99) 21 (0–99)
Number of volunteers per age group     
 0–4 6 17 7 30
 5–14 34 136 41 211
 15–30 47 145 48 240
 >30 54 130 40 224
 Overall 141 428** 136 705**
P value (difference in age groups) χ 2 = 38.206
p = 2.557 × 10−08
χ 2 = 102.000
p < 2.2 × 10−16
χ 2 = 29.706
p = 1.591 × 10−06
χ 2 = 378.970
p ≤ 2.2 × 10−16
Average parasitaemia (parasites/μl) 136.8 (351.6) 20.1 (25.2) 9.8 (8.2) 40.2 (153.6)
Mean (SD)
Median (Range)
11 (1–1133) 10 (1–106) 7 (3–25) 9.5 (1–1133)
Number of asymptomatic cases in qPCR positive volunteers (%) 9/10 (90 %) 17/36 (47.2 %) 5/8 (72.5 %) 31/54 (57.4 %)
χ 2 = 1.1852
p = 0.2763
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. ** One age datum missing; *** W = 2.4822, p = 0.2891; difference in medians between sites