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Table 1 General characteristics

From: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) predicts the occurrence of malaria-induced acute kidney injury

  AKI n=6 No AKI n=33 P value
Demographic findings
Age, years 43 (29–62) 46 (28–69) 0.89
Male gender 3 (50 %) 30 (91 %) <0.05
Ethnicity    1.00
Caucasian 2 (33 %) 9 (27 %) 1.00
African 4 (67 %) 22 (67 %) 1.00
Asian 0 (0 %) 2 (6 %) 1.00
Adequate prophylaxis use 0 (0 %) 0 (0 %) 1.00
Symptoms ≥8 days 2 (33 %) 6 (19 %) 0.58
Nephrotoxic co-medicationa 1 (17 %) 4 (12 %) 1.00
Clinical findings
Temperature °C 39.5 (38.3–40.1) 38.4 (35.5–40.7) 0.11
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 100 (73–140) 125 (95–170) 0.08
Pulse rate beats/minute 111 (100–140) 95 (56–129) <0.05
Glasgow coma scale 15 (15–15) 15 (11–15) 0.54
Laboratory findings
Creatinine, µmol/L 196 (77–1081) 96 (39–133) <0.01
Urea, mmol/L 14.8 (9.1–55.8) 5.6 (2.7–33.6) <0.001
Sodium, mmol/L 129 (120–136) 137 (127–141) <0.01
Potassium, mmol/L 3.2 (2.9–3.9) 3.7 (3.3–4.5) <0.05
Lactate, mmol/L 4.5 (1.9–5.8) 1.5 (0.6–4.6) <0.001
Parasitaemia, parasites/µL 386,600 (45,900–1,380,600) 39,200 (64–678,400) <0.05
sNGAL, ng/ml 700 (174–2287) 91 (19–204) <0.001
uNGAL, ng/ml 5792 (376–22,028) 9 (1–240) <0.001
uKIM-1, ng/ml 3.9 (1.8–7.8) 1.2 (0.1–8.7) <0.01
uNGAL/ sNGAL 10.1 (0.4–25.1) 0.1 (0.0–2.6) <0.001
uNGAL/uCreatinine 815.0 (5.4–2172.7) 0.8 (0.1–42.5) <0.001
uKIM-1/uCreatinine 0.04 (0.02–0.08) 0.1 (0.0–2.9) 0.04
Concomitant bacterial infection 1 (17 %) 0 (0 %) 0.15
Outcome
Severe malaria (WHO 2014) 5 (83 %) 5 (15 %) <0.01
Renal replacement therapy 3 (50 %) 0 (0 %) <0.01
ICU admission 4 (67 %) 4 (12 %) <0.05
Death 1 (17 %) 0 (0 %) 0.15
  1. Continuous variables are given as median (range). Nominal variables are given as number (percentage)
  2. P values <0.05 are considered significant
  3. aSelf-reported use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ACE-inhibitors, diuretics or lithium