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Table 1 Under five children malaria morbidity in 2012 and 2014 by socio demographic characteristics (weighted, unmatched)

From: The effectiveness of a nationwide universal coverage campaign of insecticide-treated bed nets on childhood malaria in Malawi

Variable name Category Year = 2012 (n = 2312) Year = 2014 (n = 2183)
Malaria test outcome Malaria test outcome
Total Negative Positive p value Total Negative Positive p value
Age of the child (months) Mean (SD) 31.4 (15.3) 30.5 (15.2) 34.5 (15.1) <0.001* 30.9 (15.3) 30.0 (15.5) 35.1 (14.9) <0.001*
Sex of the child Female 1001 (52.9 %) 769 (53.0 %) 300 (54.0 %) 0.955** 1111 (50.9 %) 665 (51.5 %) 289 (47.4 %) 0.149**
Male 892 (47.1 %) 681 (47.0 %) 255 (46.0 %) 1072 (49.1 %) 626 (48.5 %) 319 (52.6 %)
Area of residence Rural 2009 (86.9 %) 1211 (83.5 %) 527 (95.0 %) <0.001* 1862 (85.3 %) 1052 (81.5 %) 582 (95.8 %) <0.001*
Urban 303 (13.1 %) 239 (16.5 %) 28 (5.0 %) 321 (14.7 %) 239 (18.5 %) 25 (4.2 %)
Cluster attitude (KM) Mean (SD) 0.9 (0.3) 0.9 (0.3) 0.9 (0.3) 0.169** 0.9 (0.3) 1.0 (0.0) 0.9 (0.0) 0.001*
Child slept under bed net No 810 (37.9 %) 492 (36.6 %) 228 (44.2 %) <0.001* 637 (30.6 %) 353 (28.3 %) 224 (39.2 %) 0.016*
Yes 1327 (62.1 %) 852 (63.4 %) 288 (55.8 %) 1444 (69.4 %) 891 (71.7 %) 347 (60.8 %)
Sex of household head Female 497 (21.5 %) 319 (22.0 %) 115 (20.7 %) 0.632** 320 (14.7 %) 194 (15.0 %) 93 (15.4 %) 0.398**
Male 1815 (78.5 %) 1130 (78.0 %) 440 (79.3 %) 1863 (85.3 %) 1098 (85.0 %) 513 (84.6 %)
Age of the mother (years) Mean (SD) 28.4 (6.7) 28.2 (6.5) 28.3 (6.9) 0.863** 28.0 (6.5) 28.1 (6.4) 28.4 (6.7) 0.411**
Wealth index score Mean (SD) 2.8 (1.4) 3.3 (1.5) 2.5 (1.3) <0.001* 2.8 (1.4) 3.3 (1.4) 2.5 (1.3) <0.001*
Mother’s total years of education Mean (SD) 4.8 (3.6) 5.8 (3.8) 3.9 (3.1) <0.001* 5.4 (3.7) 6.3 (3.6) 4.7 (3.2) <0.001*
Number of under five children (mother) Mean (SD) 1.7 (0.7) 1.7 (0.7) 1.8 (0.7) 0.004* 1.7 (0.7) 1.6 (0.6) 1.7 (0.7) 0.002*
Number of bed nets (household) Mean (SD) 1.1 (1.0) 1.2 (1.1) 0.9 (0.9) <0.001* 1.4 (1.1) 1.6 (1.1) 1.4 (1.1) 0.001*
Child’s mother can read No 846 (36.6 %) 474 (32.7 %) 262 (47.1 %) <0.001* 682 (31.2 %) 354 (27.4 %) 253 (41.6 %) <0.001*
Yes 1466 (63.4 %) 976 (67.3 %) 293 (52.9 %) 1501 (68.8 %) 938 (72.6 %) 354 (58.4 %)
Mother heard messages about malaria (<6 weeks ago) No 1586 (73.4 %) 973 (70.6 %) 407 (81.9 %) <0.001* 1593 (78.9 %) 938 (76.4 %) 455 (84.5 %) 0.203**
Yes 574 (26.6 %) 405 (29.4 %) 90 (18.1 %) 427 (21.1 %) 290 (23.6 %) 83 (15.5 %)
Mother knowns mosquito bites cause malaria No 149 (6.9 %) 70 (5.1 %) 54 (10.8 %) <0.001* 286 (14.2 %) 153 (12.5 %) 94 (17.5 %) 0.084**
yes 2011 (93.1 %) 1307 (94.9 %) 443 (89.2 %) 1734 (85.8 %) 1074 (87.5 %) 444 (82.5 %)
Mother knows fever is the main sign of malaria No 190 (8.8 %) 127 (9.2 %) 32 (6.5 %) 0.082** 266 (13.2 %) 167 (13.6 %) 44 (8.1 %) 0.020*
Yes 1970 (91.2 %) 1250 (90.8 %) 464 (93.5 %) 1754 (86.8 %) 1060 (86.4 %) 495 (91.9 %)
Mother knowns sleeping under ITN prevents Malaria No 1187 (54.9 %) 755 (54.8 %) 283 (57.0 %) 0.245** 1514 (74.9 %) 890 (72.5 %) 422 (78.5 %) 0.023*
Yes 973 (45.1 %) 623 (45.2 %) 214 (43.0 %) 506 (25.0 %) 337 (27.5 %) 116 (21.5 %)
Mother knows mosquito repellant prevents malaria No 2099 (97.2 %) 1333 (96.8 %) 490 (98.6 %) 0.064** 1991 (98.5 %) 1202 (97.9 %) 537 (99.8 %) 0.017*
Yes 61 (2.8 %) 11 (3.2 %) 7 (1.4 %) 29 (1.5 %) 26 (2.1 %) 1 (0.3 %)
Mother knowns mosquito coil prevents malaria No 2114 (97.9 %) 1343 (97.5 %) 489 (98.5 %) 0.112** 2003 (99.2 %) 1214 (98.9 %) 535 (99.4 %) 0.800**
Yes 46 (2.1 %) 35 (2.5 %) 7 (1.5 %) 17 (0.8 %) 13 (1.1 %) 3 (0.6 %)
Mother knowns cutting grass around house prevents malaria No 1950 (90.3 %) 1238 (89.8 %) 455 (91.6 %) 0.046* 1905 (94.3 %) 1145 (93.3 %) 519 (96.4 %) 0.059**
Yes 210 (9.7 %) 140 (10.2 %) 42 (8.4 %) 115 (5.7 %) 82 (6.7 %) 19 (3.6 %)
Mother knowns children are vulnerable to Malaria No 275 (12.7 %) 159 (11.6 %) 85 (17.1 %) 0.002* 388 (19.2 %) 232 (18.9 %) 102 (19.0 %) 0.864**
Yes 1885 (87.3 %) 1218 (88.4 %) 411 (82.9 %) 1632 (80.8 %) 995 (88.1 %) 436 (81.0 %)
  1. SD standard deviation, KM kilometres, ITN insecticide-treated bed net
  2. * Significant (p ≤ 0.05); ** non significant (p > 0.05)