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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors associated with Plasmodium infection (PCR) among Rwandan schoolchildren

From: Asymptomatic only at first sight: malaria infection among schoolchildren in highland Rwanda

Variable No. Proportion infected (%, n) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
OR 95% CI P aOR 95% CI P
Age (years)
 6 132 20.5 (27) 1    1   
 7 243 17.7 (43) 0.84 0.61–1.15 0.28 0.85 0.64–1.12 0.25
 8 268 20.1 (54) 0.98 0.74–1.31 0.90 0.88 0.66–1.18 0.40
 9 214 22.0 (47) 1.09 0.78–1.53 0.60 1.10 0.80–1.49 0.56
 10 232 31.5 (73) 1.79 1.24–2.57 0.002 1.71 1.15–2.55 0.008
Stunting (HAZ < 2 SD)
 No 890 20.6 (183) 1      
 Yes 189 31.2 (59) 1.75 1.22–2.52 0.002 n.s.
Residence altitude (m)
 <1700 410 33.7 (138) 1    1   
 1700–1750 514 19.3 (99) 0.47 0.24–0.93 0.0001 0.61 0.37–1.02 0.061
 >1750 165 4.2 (7) 0.09 0.03–0.23 0.031 0.13 0.07–0.23 <0.0001
Maternal education
 None 175 25.9 (47) 1    
 Primary 620 22.9 (142) 0.81 0.44–1.50 0.50 n.s.
 Secondary/tertiary 102 8.8 (9) 0.26 0.12–0.61 0.002 n.s.
Paternal education
 None 92 19.6 (18) 1    
 Primary 425 22.4 (95) 1.18 0.67–2.09 0.56 n.s.
 Secondary/tertiary 91 8.8 (9) 0.4 0.16–0.97 0.043 n.s.
No. of rooms in household
 1–2 575 22.4 (129) 1    
 3–4 333 26.1 (87) 1.22 0.79–1.90 0.37 n.s.
 >4 30 3.3 (1) 0.12 0.03–0.50 0.004 n.s.
Electricity in household
 No 856 25.8 (221) 1    1
 Yes 161 5.6 (9) 0.17 0.06–0.50 0.001 0.31 0.14–0.69 0.004
Floor material
 Plain soil 766 26.8 (205) 1    
 Else 245 10.2 (25) 0.31 0.18–0.55 0.0001 n.s.
Radio in household
 No 437 24.9 (109) 1      
 Yes 577 20.6 (119) 0.78 0.55–1.11 0.167 n.s.
Bicycle in household
 No 852 24.3 (207) 1    1   
 Yes 163 13.5 (22) 0.49 0.30–0.79 0.004 0.51 0.30–0.86 0.012
TV set in household
 No 937 24.1 (226) 1      
 Yes 77 2.6 (2) 0.08 0.03–0.26 0.0001 n.s.
Mobile phone in household
 No 457 28.0 (128) 1      
 Yes 556 18.0 (100) 0.56 0.35–0.91 0.018 n.s.
Ability to pay school fees
 No 614 26.1 (160) 1      
 Yes 309 14.9 (46) 0.50 0.30–0.81 0.006 n.s.
Ability to pay health insurance
 No 511 28.4 (145) 1      
 Yes 489 16.6 (81) 0.50 0.33–0.77 0.002 n.s.
Water treatment
 No 600 26.5 (159) 1      
 Yes 353 14.4 (51) 0.47 0.29–0.77 0.003 n.s.
Child slept under bed net last night
 No 176 30.1 (53) 1      
 Yes 842 20.9 (176) 0.61 0.35–1.07 0.084 n.s.
Child attended health facility within preceding 2 weeks
 No 805 20.6 (166) 1      
 Yes 214 31.8 (68) 1.79 1.42–2.26 0.0001 n.s.
Child received any malaria treatment within preceding month
 No 840 17.6 (148) 1    1   
 Yes 160 50.0 (80) 4.68 2.67–8.19 0.0001 3.07 1.93–4.89 <0.0001
Time to reach next health centre (min)
 <30 255 14.9 (38) 1      
 >30 762 25.3 (193) 1.94 0.95–3.93 0.067 n.s.
  1. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; aOR, adjusted odds ratio, adjusted for all other factors shown in table and taking into account cluster effects