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Table 4 Clinical manifestations of Plasmodium spp. infection among 1071 Rwandan schoolchildren

From: Asymptomatic only at first sight: malaria infection among schoolchildren in highland Rwanda

Parameter Uninfected Infected (PCR positive) P Microscopic infection P Submicroscopic infection P
No. 823 240   148b   100  
Anaemia (%) 29.6 60.4 0.0001 64.2 0.0001 52.0 0.0001
Hb (g/dL; median, range) 12.6 (7.1–16.6) 11.6 (6.0–15.1) 0.0001 11.5 (6.8–15.1) 0.0001 11.9 (6.0–14.5) 0.0001
Current fever (%) 1.0 7.5 0.0001 10.8 0.0001 2.0 0.30
Ax. Temperature (°C; mean ± SD) 36.4 ± 0.4 36.6 ± 0.8 0.0001 36.7 ± 0.9 0.0001 36.5 ± 0.5 0.059
WAZ (SD; median, range) −0.98 (−3.87–2.02) −1.25 (−4.51–2.02) 0.001 −1.40 (−4.51–2.02) 0.0001 −1.00 (−3.44–0.42) 0.93
Underweight (WAZ < −2 SD, %) 14.1 20.8 0.045 27.0 0.0001 14.0 0.92
MUAC (cm; mean ± SD)c 16.3 ± 1.3 15.9 ± 1.1 <0.0001 15.9 ± 1.2 0.0002 15.9 ± 1.0 0.007
Clinically assessed malnutrition (%) 19.8 28.3 0.005 35.1 0.0001 21.0 0.67
History within preceding 2 weeks (%)
 Fever 19.8 45.0 0.0001 46.6 0.0001 41.0 0.0001
 Tiredness 10.6 24.2 0.0001 25.0 0.0001 23.0 0.0001
 Vomiting 6.6 14.6 0.0001 14.9 0.0001 14.0 0.0001
 Abdominal pain 30.3 45.8 0.001 48.6 0.0001 40.0 0.088
 Poor appetite 17.6 27.1 0.023 25.0 0.122 30.0 0.006
 Weaknessa 14.8 25.1 0.006 23.9 0.018 26.8 0.003
  1. Comparisons (P values) with uninfected group take into account cluster effects
  2. a n = 1019
  3. bEight children without confirmation by PCR
  4. c n = 925