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Table 2 Mortality rates of female Anopheles gambiae s.l. tested for insecticide resistance to six insecticides in 2011 and 2013 in 12 sentinel sites in Rwanda

From: Susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to insecticides used for malaria vector control in Rwanda

Insecticide 2011 2013
Site N # Replicates Mortality (%) N # Replicates Mortality (%) χ2 value p value
Lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% Bukora 86 4 99 ± 1 100 4 63 ± 5 51.3 <0.001*
  Busoro 82 4 100 200 8 72 ± 3 77.78 <0.001*
  Karambi 84 4 100 99 4 93 ± 3 7.53 0.006*
  Kibogora 81 4 99 ± 1 100 4 85 ± 4 13.29 <0.001*
  Kicukiro 82 4 100 191 8 75 ± 3 64.112 <0.001*
  Kivumu 82 4 100 100 4 100   
  Mareba 88 4 100 100 4 43 ± 5 132.1 <0.001*
  Mashesha 92 4 98 ± 1 94 4 87 ± 3 8.37 0.04*
  Mbuga 81 4 100 97 4 95 ± 2 5.27 0.02*
  Mimuri 85 4 100 100 4 57 ± 5 75.44 <0.001*
  Mubuga 83 4 100 85 4 98 ± 2 2.05 0.15
  Rukara 82 4 100 100 4 78 ± 4 28.02 0.000*
Permethrin 0.75% Bukora 85 4 84 ± 4 200 8 84 ± 3 0.1 0.92
  Busoro 100 4 100 100 4 95 ± 2 5.26 0.02*
  Karambi 88 4 91 ± 3 99 4 91 ± 3 0 0.98
  Kibogora 84 4 89 ± 3 100 4 92 ± 3 0.367 0.54
  Kicukiro 83 4 99 ± 3 97 4 97 ± 2 0.772 0.38
  Kivumu 80 4 100 100 4 100   
  Mareba 92 4 99 100 4 63 ± 5 53.9 <0.001*
  Mashesha 183 8 96 ± 3 94 4 90 ± 3 3.04 0.08
  Mbuga 87 4 95 ± 3 97 4 100   
  Mimuri 87 4 86 ± 4 100 4 66 ± 5 11.03 <0.001*
  Mubuga 90 4 97 ± 2 85 4 94 ± 3 0.72 0.39
  Rukara 86 4 84 ± 5 100 4 92 ± 3 2.95 0.09
Deltamethrin 0.05% Bukora 168 8 85 ± 3 97 4 74 ± 4 3.85 0.05
  Busoro 84 4 100 200 8 88 ± 2 28.57 <0.001*
  Karambi 82 4 99 ± 1 100 4 97 ± 1 0.72 0.4
  Kibogora 83 4 93 ± 3 97 4 89 ± 3 0.92 0.34
  Kicukiro 86 4 90 ± 3 194 4 82 ± 3 3.1 0.08
  Kivumu 85 4 100 100 4 100   
  Mareba 97 4 99 100 4 67 ± 5 45.1 <0.001*
  Mashesha 99 4 99 ± 2 95 4 97 ± 2 1.22 0.27
  Mbuga 89 4 97 ± 2 86 4 100 2.05 0.15
  Mimuri 86 4 98 ± 2 100 4 81 ± 4 15.42 <0.001*
  Mubuga 90 4 99 90 4 98 ± 2 1.34 0.56
  Rukara 87 4 94.5 ± 2 100 4 90 ± 2 1.37 0.24
DDT 4% Bukora 86 4 77 ± 5 94 n/a n/a   
  Busoro 84 4 100 100 4 89 ± 3 12.36 <0.001*
  Karambi 86 4 95 ± 2 95 4 87 ± 3 3.8 0.05*
  Kibogora 84 4 75 ± 2 0 4 n/a   
  Kicukiro 83 4 52 ± 6 93 4 43 ± 5 1.37 0.242
  Kivumu 88 4 95 ± 2 100 4 100 4.2 0.04*
  Mareba 88 4 99 100 4 81 ± 4 19.9 <0.001*
  Mashesha 94 4 88 ± 3 99 4 70 ± 3 14.07 0.001*
  Mbuga 83 4 100 84 4 96 ± 2 3.11 0.08
  Mimuri 85 4 95 ± 2 100 4 76 ± 5 13.22 <0.001*
  Mubuga 90 4 96 ± 2 89 4 96 ± 2 0.000 0.99
  Rukara n/a n/a n/a 100 4 94 ± 2   
Bendiocarb 0.1% Bukora 87 4 100 100 4 91 ± 3 8.81 0.003*
  Busoro 88 4 100 100 4 100   
  Karambi 84 4 99 ± 1 83 4 98 ± 1 0.202 0.65
  Kibogora 83 4 96 ± 2 97 4 100 3.11 0.08
  Kicukiro 93 4 100 96 4 100   
  Kivumu 82 4 100 100 4 96 ± 2 3.1 0.08
  Mareba 87 4 100 100 4 100   
  Mashesha 93 4 100 100 4 100   
  Mbuga 86 4 99 88 4 100 1.01 0.31
  Mimuri 83 4 100 88 4 100   
  Mubuga 91 4 100 81 4 100   
  Rukara 86 4 99 96 4 100   
Fenitrothion 1% Bukora 83 4 100 97 4 100   
  Busoro 93 4 100 100 4 100   
  Karambi 82 4 100 94 4 100   
  Kibogora 81 4 n/a 90 4 100   
  Kicukiro 85 4 100 98 4 100   
  Kivumu 84 4 100 100 4 100   
  Mareba 84 4 100 100 4 100   
  Mashesha 183 8 100 100 4 100   
  Mbuga 81 4 100 192 8 100   
  Mimuri 82 4 100 88 4 100   
  Mubuga 82 4 100 88 4 100   
  Rukara 82 4 100 100 4 100