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Table 2 Risk factors (crude odds ratios) for clinical malaria (cases) compared with age- and location-matched non-malaria controls among children under-5 years of age from urban and peri-urban health facilities of Blantyre city, Malawi, sampled between April 2012 and October 2015

From: Patterns and determinants of malaria risk in urban and peri-urban areas of Blantyre, Malawi

Characteristic Cases (N=187),
n (%)
Controls (N=286),
n (%)
OR (95% CI) P value
Gender (male) 98 (52) 147 (51) 0.99 (0.67–1.47) 0.47
LLIN use previous night 157 (77) 233 (82) 0.75 (0.40, −1.2) 0.31
Slept away from house 18 (9) 15 (4) 2.35 (1.04–5.32) 0.04
Tertiary education 46 (25) 107 (38) 0.53 (0.34, 0.83) 0.002
Ownership of house 151 (53) 105 (57) 0.86 (0.55, 1.35) 0.51
Toilet in house 85 (3) 8 (3) 1.0 (0.32, 3.10) 1.0
Piped water in house 70 (38) 141 (50) 0.50 (0.26, 0.98) 0.04
Finished house roof 107 (58) 203 (73) 0.44 (0.27, 0.73) 0.001
Finished house floor 77 (42) 165 (58) 0.41 (0.25, 0.66) 0.0003
Finished house walls 119 (65) 212 (75) 0.58 (0.38, 0.90) 0.01
Electricity at house 26 (14) 72 (25) 0.44 (0.25–0.78) 0.005
TV ownership 20 (11) 69 (24) 0.39 (0.22, 0.69) 0.001
Radio ownership 90 (49) 146 (52) 0.89 (0.58–1.35) 0.57
Bike ownership 34 (19) 48 (17) 1.12 (0.67–1.86) 0.66
Car ownership 1 (0.6) 4 (1.4) 0.43 (0.05, 3.87) 0.45
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. P values, OR and 95% CI were estimated through conditional logistic regression accounting for matching