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Table 4 Risk factors (adjusted odds ratios) for clinical malaria (cases) compared with age- and location-matched non-malaria (controls) among children under 5 years of age from urban and peri-urban health facilities of Blantyre city, Malawi, sampled between April 2012 and October 2015

From: Patterns and determinants of malaria risk in urban and peri-urban areas of Blantyre, Malawi

Characteristic OR (Ncases = 175, NControls = 275) 95% CI P value
Model 1
Slept away from home; n (%)    0.02**
In the urban* setting 2.36 (1.31, 4.2)  
In the peri-urban* setting 1.17 (0.64, 2.15)  
Household with electricity 0.57 (0.31, 1.06) 0.08
Tertiary education 0.59 (0.36, 0.96) 0.03
Model 2
PC 1 (House finishing/ piped water score) 0.80 (0.66, 0.97) 0.02
Slept away from home; n (%)    0.04**
In the urban* setting 2.3 (1.28, 4.11)  
In the peri-urban* setting 1.19 (0.65, 2.20)  
House with electricity 0.76 (0.39, 1.47) 0.41
Tertiary education 0.67 (0.41, 1.12) 0.12
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. * Urban areas considered Bangwe, Ndirande, Zingwangwa and Chilomoni HFs; peri-urban areas are Chileka and Mpemba HFs
  3. ** P value for the interaction between urban vs. peri-urban and slept away from home
  4. P values, OR, and 95% CI were estimated through conditional logistic regression to account for matching strata