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Table 3 Co-association frequencies of dhfr mutations and gch1 duplications

From: Characterizing the impact of sustained sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine use upon the Plasmodium falciparum population in Malawi

dhfr mutantsa gch1 duplication dhps mutantsb Malawi Other East Africa DRC West Africa South Asia Southeast Asia South America
None None None 0 0 0 0.067 0 0.002 0.048
None None Single 0 0 0 0.095 0 0 0
Single None None 0 0 0 0.002 0.019 0.002 0.524
Single None Single 0 0 0 0.040 0 0 0.048
Double None None 0 0.030 0.018 0.030 0.019 0.031 0.143
Double None Single 0 0 0.071 0.112 0.019 0.028 0
Double None Double 0.005 0.121 0 0.002 0.278 0.021 0.143
Double Promoter None 0 0 0 0.002 0 0 0
Double Promoter Single 0 0 0.054 0.028 0 0 0
Double Promoter Double 0.009 0 0 0 0 0 0
Double Gene Single 0 0 0 0.005 0 0 0
Double Gene Double 0 0 0 0 0.037 0.001 0
Triple None None 0 0.061 0.036 0.086 0.019 0.078 0
Triple None Single 0 0 0.393 0.328 0.056 0.190 0.048
Triple None Double 0.032 0.788 0.036 0.005 0.389 0.185 0.048
Triple Promoter None 0 0 0.036 0.012 0 0 0
Triple Promoter Single 0 0 0.304 0.160 0 0 0
Triple Promoter Double 0.950 0 0.054 0.009 0 0 0
Triple Gene Single 0 0 0 0.014 0 0.007 0
Triple Gene Double 0 0 0 0 0 0.006 0
Quadruple None None 0 0 0 0 0.019 0.004 0
Quadruple None Single 0 0 0 0 0.019 0.144 0
Quadruple None Double 0 0 0 0 0.093 0.244 0
Quadruple Gene Single 0 0 0 0 0 0.014 0
Quadruple Gene Double 0 0 0 0 0.037 0.042 0
  1. Frequencies greater than 0.2 are shown in italics
  2. a dhfr mutant haplotypes: double—any two of dhfr N51I, C59R or S108N; triple—dhfr N51I, C59R and S108N; quadruple—dhfr triple mutant haplotype with I164L; DRC Democratic Republic of Congo
  3. b dhps double mutant haplotypes consist of dhps A437G and K540E