Skip to main content

Table 1 Key secondary data sources and measures

From: Exploring the use of routinely-available, retrospective data to study the association between malaria control scale-up and micro-economic outcomes in Zambia

Data Link to causal pathway (Fig. 1) Source Level of data aggregation Year and frequency of source Definition of variables in model from data source
Ownership of ITN and/or receipt of IRS Primary treatment variable MIS Household 2006, 2008, and 2010 Per cent of households by district that own at least one ITN/LLIN and/or received IRS in previous 12 months
Use of ITNs/LLINs Intermediate treatment variable MIS Household 2006, 2008, and 2010 Per cent of household members by district who slept under an ITN/LLIN previous night
Use of ITNs/LLINs and/or receipt of IRS Intermediate treatment variable MIS Household 2006, 2008, and 2010 Constructed variable combining ‘use of ITNs/LLINs’ with ‘receipt of IRS’ (since the variable may exceed 100%, the authors capped the variable at 100% in the main analysis but tested other definitions in robustness checks. Note that unlike the Ownership variable, the authors cannot control for overlap between households that use ITNs and are in sprayed dwellings)
Per cent of household members by district who slept under an ITN/LLIN previous night and/or received IRS in the previous 12 months
Economic outcomes Outcome LCMS Household December 2006,
February 2010
Household monthly food expenditure
Total household monthly expenditure
Per cent of school-age children currently in school
Years of education attained among school-aged individuals or older
Household’s annual production of maize, nuts, potatoes, and cassava
District-level characteristics Control variables LCMS Household December 2006
February 2010
Average number of children 18 years or younger in the household
Average number of children 5 years or younger in the household
Average household size
Per cent of workers and those looking for work by business type
Per cent of household heads who have completed at least primary education
Per cent of households with female household head
Per cent of households in rural areas
Household monthly food expenditure
Total household monthly expenditure
Per cent of school-age children currently in school
Years of education among school-aged individuals or older
Household’s annual production of maize, nuts, potatoes, and cassava
MIS Household 2006, 2008, and 2010 Prevalence of malaria parasite infection among children 5 years and under
HMIS District Quarterly data for 2005–2008; monthly data 2009–2010
Data come for all hospitals, health centres, and health posts
Total number of outpatient malaria cases (confirmed and clinical) for children and adults by district
NASA SRTM GIS 90 m 2008 Elevation by district (mean, median, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation)
CGIAR-CSI [36] GIS 0.25° Annual per agricultural season Rainfall inches per growing season (October of prior year to September of current year)
  1. MIS Malaria Indicator Survey, NMCC National Malaria Control Centre, HMIS health management information system, LCMS Living Conditions Monitoring Survey, NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration, SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, CGIAR-CSI Consortium for Spatial Information, LLIN long-lasting insecticide-treated net